Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   910 times

If user input is inserted without modification into an SQL query, then the application becomes vulnerable to SQL injection, like in the following example:

$unsafe_variable = $_POST['user_input']; 

mysql_query("INSERT INTO `table` (`column`) VALUES ('$unsafe_variable')");

That's because the user can input something like value'); DROP TABLE table;--, and the query becomes:

INSERT INTO `table` (`column`) VALUES('value'); DROP TABLE table;--')

What can be done to prevent this from happening?

 Answers

24

Use prepared statements and parameterized queries. These are SQL statements that are sent to and parsed by the database server separately from any parameters. This way it is impossible for an attacker to inject malicious SQL.

You basically have two options to achieve this:

  1. Using PDO (for any supported database driver):

    $stmt = $pdo->prepare('SELECT * FROM employees WHERE name = :name');
    
    $stmt->execute([ 'name' => $name ]);
    
    foreach ($stmt as $row) {
        // Do something with $row
    }
    
  2. Using MySQLi (for MySQL):

    $stmt = $dbConnection->prepare('SELECT * FROM employees WHERE name = ?');
    $stmt->bind_param('s', $name); // 's' specifies the variable type => 'string'
    
    $stmt->execute();
    
    $result = $stmt->get_result();
    while ($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
        // Do something with $row
    }
    

If you're connecting to a database other than MySQL, there is a driver-specific second option that you can refer to (for example, pg_prepare() and pg_execute() for PostgreSQL). PDO is the universal option.


Correctly setting up the connection

Note that when using PDO to access a MySQL database real prepared statements are not used by default. To fix this you have to disable the emulation of prepared statements. An example of creating a connection using PDO is:

$dbConnection = new PDO('mysql:dbname=dbtest;host=127.0.0.1;charset=utf8', 'user', 'password');

$dbConnection->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, false);
$dbConnection->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);

In the above example the error mode isn't strictly necessary, but it is advised to add it. This way the script will not stop with a Fatal Error when something goes wrong. And it gives the developer the chance to catch any error(s) which are thrown as PDOExceptions.

What is mandatory, however, is the first setAttribute() line, which tells PDO to disable emulated prepared statements and use real prepared statements. This makes sure the statement and the values aren't parsed by PHP before sending it to the MySQL server (giving a possible attacker no chance to inject malicious SQL).

Although you can set the charset in the options of the constructor, it's important to note that 'older' versions of PHP (before 5.3.6) silently ignored the charset parameter in the DSN.


Explanation

The SQL statement you pass to prepare is parsed and compiled by the database server. By specifying parameters (either a ? or a named parameter like :name in the example above) you tell the database engine where you want to filter on. Then when you call execute, the prepared statement is combined with the parameter values you specify.

The important thing here is that the parameter values are combined with the compiled statement, not an SQL string. SQL injection works by tricking the script into including malicious strings when it creates SQL to send to the database. So by sending the actual SQL separately from the parameters, you limit the risk of ending up with something you didn't intend.

Any parameters you send when using a prepared statement will just be treated as strings (although the database engine may do some optimization so parameters may end up as numbers too, of course). In the example above, if the $name variable contains 'Sarah'; DELETE FROM employees the result would simply be a search for the string "'Sarah'; DELETE FROM employees", and you will not end up with an empty table.

Another benefit of using prepared statements is that if you execute the same statement many times in the same session it will only be parsed and compiled once, giving you some speed gains.

Oh, and since you asked about how to do it for an insert, here's an example (using PDO):

$preparedStatement = $db->prepare('INSERT INTO table (column) VALUES (:column)');

$preparedStatement->execute([ 'column' => $unsafeValue ]);

Can prepared statements be used for dynamic queries?

While you can still use prepared statements for the query parameters, the structure of the dynamic query itself cannot be parametrized and certain query features cannot be parametrized.

For these specific scenarios, the best thing to do is use a whitelist filter that restricts the possible values.

// Value whitelist
// $dir can only be 'DESC', otherwise it will be 'ASC'
if (empty($dir) || $dir !== 'DESC') {
   $dir = 'ASC';
}
Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
KingCrunch
answered 7 Months ago
18

It seems that you have Magic Quotes enabled. But you better disable this option or revert them. mysql_real_escape_string is more secure.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
csi
answered 7 Months ago
csi
42

I think that you want:

INSERT INTO Contacts (id,group_id,company_id,email,name)
SELECT co.id,co.group_id,co.id,co.email,co.name
FROM company co
LEFT JOIN contacts c ON co.id = c.company_id
WHERE c.company_id IS NULL

This will insert all the information from contacts in company that wasn't already there. the column phone will be left null, since there is no information in contacts for that column.

Saturday, May 29, 2021
 
xenon
answered 5 Months ago
56

Your advice is indeed incorrect.

mysql_real_escape_string() will not work for dynamic table names; it is designed to escape string data, delimited by quotes, only. It will not escape the backtick character. It's a small but crucial distinction.

So I could insert a SQL injection in this, I would just have to use a closing backtick.

PDO does not provide sanitation for dynamic table names, either.

This is why it is good not to use dynamic table names, or if one has to, comparing them against a list of valid values, like a list of tables from a SHOW TABLES command.

I wasn't really fully aware of this either, and probably guilty of repeating the same bad advice, until it was pointed out to me here on SO, also by Col. Shrapnel.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
Optimus
answered 5 Months ago
68

As long as you're using Prepare or Query, you're safe.

// this is safe
db.Query("SELECT name FROM users WHERE age=?", req.FormValue("age"))
// this allows sql injection.
db.Query("SELECT name FROM users WHERE age=" + req.FormValue("age"))
Thursday, July 15, 2021
 
iftheshoefritz
answered 3 Months ago
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