Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   41 times

I'm using the Facebook library with this code in it:

class FacebookRestClient {
    public function &users_hasAppPermission($ext_perm, $uid=null) {
        return $this->call_method('facebook.users.hasAppPermission', 
        array('ext_perm' => $ext_perm, 'uid' => $uid));

What does the & at the beginning of the function definition mean, and how do I go about using a library like this (in a simple example)



An ampersand before a function name means the function will return a reference to a variable instead of the value.

Returning by reference is useful when you want to use a function to find to which variable a reference should be bound. Do not use return-by-reference to increase performance. The engine will automatically optimize this on its own. Only return references when you have a valid technical reason to do so.

See Returning References.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

First of all, __get, __set, etc. are defined public and you cannot have them otherwise. Magic methods should be used wisely as it takes about three times as long to make a call to a magic method than simply calling a class method.

class A {
   public function __get($name) { ... }

   public function __getValue() { ... }     // <== is faster


Usually (normally, preferably), you will have your class members private or protected (never public) and have accessors and mutators to encapsulate them. Those accessors and mutator may be of any visibility, depending on what the user can do with the members. You may also have immutable classes by declaring only accessors for your members, which are initialized in the constructor only.

So, your sample class should read

class classWithReadOnlyVar {
   private $readOnlyVar;

   public function getReadonlyVar() {
     return $this->readOnlyVar;


and should not use the magic methods.

There may be many reasons to avoid using magic methods at all :

  1. they break code completion
  2. they are slower at run-time
  3. they make refactoring and maintenance a bit (lot) harder/complicated
  4. you can't have a protected magic method
  5. etc.

Class members

Their visibility should be private or protected, it all depends if you want them accessible by inheritence. They should never be public as this breaks the OO paradigm.

Example of a protected member:

class A {
    protected $_name = 'A';

    public function getName() { return $this->_name; }

class B {
    protected $_name = 'B';   // getName() will not return 'B'

(without $_name being protected, this would not be possible, and no need to redefine the accessor)


They should be protected or public. Having a private accessor makes no sense; a class should access it's member directly. If the member needs processing, the class will know regardless when to call the accessor or not.


They should be protected or public. As for the accessors, it makes no sense to have a private mutator... unless a very rare case when processing needs to be done internally. If a class member has no accessor, it should not have a mutator. It also makes no sense to have a mean to set a value without being able to get the value back somehow.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

I think the correct syntax for referencing ranges of cells in another sheet is:


So you should try:

$objValidation->setFormula1('List!$A$1:$A$10'); // tested it, worked for me

Got the idea from

->setFormula1("Worksheet!A1:{$endCell}1");// work....

Although this guy had another problem with using named ranges.

Background: I think with:


you're explicity using the given string between the quotation marks as the list value as explained here: here (where you probably got this snippet in the first place) or here. But since you don't want to use fixed list items but dynamically referred ones, you should omit the double quotation marks.

Saturday, May 29, 2021
answered 5 Months ago

Zend Framework is based on MVC design pattern which stands for Model View Controller. The View is presentation part including html, javascript, css or any other aesthetics.

Rendering a view means showing up a View eg html part to user or browser. Let's say you have a controller for About page of your site, now from your controller you would render the About view which means show the that page in browser for users to see otherwise if you don't users will see just blank page :)

Think of it echoing html/css/js to browser.

Saturday, May 29, 2021
answered 5 Months ago

When you "call" a function you are basically just telling the program to execute that function. So if you had a function that added two numbers such as:

def add(a,b):
    return a + b

you would call the function like this:


which would return 8. You can put any two numbers in the parentheses in this case. You can also call a function like this:

answer = add(4,7)

Which would set the variable answer equal to 11 in this case.

Saturday, June 5, 2021
answered 5 Months ago
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