Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   206 times

How would it be possible to generate a random, unique string using numbers and letters for use in a verify link? Like when you create an account on a website, and it sends you an email with a link, and you have to click that link in order to verify your account

How can I generate one of those using PHP?



Security Notice: This solution should not be used in situations where the quality of your randomness can affect the security of an application. In particular, rand() and uniqid() are not cryptographically secure random number generators. See Scott's answer for a secure alternative.

If you do not need it to be absolutely unique over time:

md5(uniqid(rand(), true))

Otherwise (given you have already determined a unique login for your user):

md5(uniqid($your_user_login, true))
Wednesday, March 31, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

Much as I am loathed to use regex for something which is on the face of it very simple, in order to guarantee exactly n replaces I think it can help here, as it allows use to easily use array_rand(), which does exactly what you want - pick n random items from a list of indeterminate length (IMPROVED).


    function replace_n_occurences ($str, $search, $replace, $n) {

        // Get all occurences of $search and their offsets within the string
        $count = preg_match_all('/b'.preg_quote($search, '/').'b/', $str, $matches, PREG_OFFSET_CAPTURE);

        // Get string length information so we can account for replacement strings that are of a different length to the search string
        $searchLen = strlen($search);
        $diff = strlen($replace) - $searchLen;
        $offset = 0;

        // Loop $n random matches and replace them, if $n < 1 || $n > $count, replace all matches
        $toReplace = ($n < 1 || $n > $count) ? array_keys($matches[0]) : (array) array_rand($matches[0], $n);
        foreach ($toReplace as $match) {
            $str = substr($str, 0, $matches[0][$match][1] + $offset).$replace.substr($str, $matches[0][$match][1] + $searchLen + $offset);
            $offset += $diff;

        return $str;


    $str = 'I like blue, blue is my favorite colour because blue is very nice and blue is pretty';

    $search = 'blue';
    $replace = 'red';
    $replaceCount = 2;

    echo replace_n_occurences($str, $search, $replace, $replaceCount);

See it working

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
answered 7 Months ago


To generate a random string, concatenate characters drawn randomly from the set of acceptable symbols until the string reaches the desired length.


Here's some fairly simple and very flexible code for generating random identifiers. Read the information that follows for important application notes.

public class RandomString {

     * Generate a random string.
    public String nextString() {
        for (int idx = 0; idx < buf.length; ++idx)
            buf[idx] = symbols[random.nextInt(symbols.length)];
        return new String(buf);

    public static final String upper = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";

    public static final String lower = upper.toLowerCase(Locale.ROOT);

    public static final String digits = "0123456789";

    public static final String alphanum = upper + lower + digits;

    private final Random random;

    private final char[] symbols;

    private final char[] buf;

    public RandomString(int length, Random random, String symbols) {
        if (length < 1) throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        if (symbols.length() < 2) throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        this.random = Objects.requireNonNull(random);
        this.symbols = symbols.toCharArray();
        this.buf = new char[length];

     * Create an alphanumeric string generator.
    public RandomString(int length, Random random) {
        this(length, random, alphanum);

     * Create an alphanumeric strings from a secure generator.
    public RandomString(int length) {
        this(length, new SecureRandom());

     * Create session identifiers.
    public RandomString() {


Usage examples

Create an insecure generator for 8-character identifiers:

RandomString gen = new RandomString(8, ThreadLocalRandom.current());

Create a secure generator for session identifiers:

RandomString session = new RandomString();

Create a generator with easy-to-read codes for printing. The strings are longer than full alphanumeric strings to compensate for using fewer symbols:

String easy = RandomString.digits + "ACEFGHJKLMNPQRUVWXYabcdefhijkprstuvwx";
RandomString tickets = new RandomString(23, new SecureRandom(), easy);

Use as session identifiers

Generating session identifiers that are likely to be unique is not good enough, or you could just use a simple counter. Attackers hijack sessions when predictable identifiers are used.

There is tension between length and security. Shorter identifiers are easier to guess, because there are fewer possibilities. But longer identifiers consume more storage and bandwidth. A larger set of symbols helps, but might cause encoding problems if identifiers are included in URLs or re-entered by hand.

The underlying source of randomness, or entropy, for session identifiers should come from a random number generator designed for cryptography. However, initializing these generators can sometimes be computationally expensive or slow, so effort should be made to re-use them when possible.

Use as object identifiers

Not every application requires security. Random assignment can be an efficient way for multiple entities to generate identifiers in a shared space without any coordination or partitioning. Coordination can be slow, especially in a clustered or distributed environment, and splitting up a space causes problems when entities end up with shares that are too small or too big.

Identifiers generated without taking measures to make them unpredictable should be protected by other means if an attacker might be able to view and manipulate them, as happens in most web applications. There should be a separate authorization system that protects objects whose identifier can be guessed by an attacker without access permission.

Care must be also be taken to use identifiers that are long enough to make collisions unlikely given the anticipated total number of identifiers. This is referred to as "the birthday paradox." The probability of a collision, p, is approximately n2/(2qx), where n is the number of identifiers actually generated, q is the number of distinct symbols in the alphabet, and x is the length of the identifiers. This should be a very small number, like 2?50 or less.

Working this out shows that the chance of collision among 500k 15-character identifiers is about 2?52, which is probably less likely than undetected errors from cosmic rays, etc.

Comparison with UUIDs

According to their specification, UUIDs are not designed to be unpredictable, and should not be used as session identifiers.

UUIDs in their standard format take a lot of space: 36 characters for only 122 bits of entropy. (Not all bits of a "random" UUID are selected randomly.) A randomly chosen alphanumeric string packs more entropy in just 21 characters.

UUIDs are not flexible; they have a standardized structure and layout. This is their chief virtue as well as their main weakness. When collaborating with an outside party, the standardization offered by UUIDs may be helpful. For purely internal use, they can be inefficient.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 5 Months ago

To answer this question specifically, two problems:

  1. $randstring is not in scope when you echo it.
  2. The characters are not getting concatenated together in the loop.

Here's a code snippet with the corrections:

function generateRandomString($length = 10) {
    $characters = '0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ';
    $charactersLength = strlen($characters);
    $randomString = '';
    for ($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++) {
        $randomString .= $characters[rand(0, $charactersLength - 1)];
    return $randomString;

Output the random string with the call below:

// Echo the random string.
// Optionally, you can give it a desired string length.
echo generateRandomString();

Please note that this generates predictable random strings. If you want to create secure tokens, see this answer.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 5 Months ago

Figured this out, here's a function that does it:

  characters TEXT := 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789';
  bytes BYTEA := gen_random_bytes(size);
  l INT := length(characters);
  i INT := 0;
  output TEXT := '';
  WHILE i < size LOOP
    output := output || substr(characters, get_byte(bytes, i) % l + 1, 1);
    i := i + 1;
  RETURN output;

And then to run it simply do:

-- '3Rls4DjWxJ'


When doing this you need to be sure that the length of the IDs you are creating is sufficient to avoid collisions over time as the number of objects you've created grows, which can be counter-intuitive because of the Birthday Paradox. So you will likely want a length greater (or much greater) than 10 for any reasonably commonly created object, I just used 10 as a simple example.


With the function defined, you can use it in a table definition, like so:

CREATE TABLE collections (
  id TEXT PRIMARY KEY DEFAULT generate_uid(10),

And then when inserting data, like so:

INSERT INTO collections (name) VALUES ('One');
INSERT INTO collections (name) VALUES ('Two');
INSERT INTO collections (name) VALUES ('Three');
SELECT * FROM collections;

It will automatically generate the id values:

    id     |  name  | ...
owmCAx552Q | ian    |
ZIofD6l3X9 | victor |

Usage with a Prefix

Or maybe you want to add a prefix for convenience when looking at a single ID in the logs or in your debugger (similar to how Stripe does it), like so:

CREATE TABLE collections (
  id TEXT PRIMARY KEY DEFAULT ('col_' || generate_uid(10)),

INSERT INTO collections (name) VALUES ('One');
INSERT INTO collections (name) VALUES ('Two');
INSERT INTO collections (name) VALUES ('Three');
SELECT * FROM collections;

      id       |  name  | ...
col_wABNZRD5Zk | ian    |
col_ISzGcTVj8f | victor |
Monday, August 9, 2021
answered 2 Months ago
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