Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   35 times

I want to create a function that performs a function passed by parameter on a set of data. How do you pass a function as a parameter in C?




A prototype for a function which takes a function parameter looks like the following:

void func ( void (*f)(int) );

This states that the parameter f will be a pointer to a function which has a void return type and which takes a single int parameter. The following function (print) is an example of a function which could be passed to func as a parameter because it is the proper type:

void print ( int x ) {
  printf("%dn", x);

Function Call

When calling a function with a function parameter, the value passed must be a pointer to a function. Use the function's name (without parentheses) for this:


would call func, passing the print function to it.

Function Body

As with any parameter, func can now use the parameter's name in the function body to access the value of the parameter. Let's say that func will apply the function it is passed to the numbers 0-4. Consider, first, what the loop would look like to call print directly:

for ( int ctr = 0 ; ctr < 5 ; ctr++ ) {

Since func's parameter declaration says that f is the name for a pointer to the desired function, we recall first that if f is a pointer then *f is the thing that f points to (i.e. the function print in this case). As a result, just replace every occurrence of print in the loop above with *f:

void func ( void (*f)(int) ) {
  for ( int ctr = 0 ; ctr < 5 ; ctr++ ) {


Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

Yes it is, just use the name of the method, as you have written. Methods and functions are objects in Python, just like anything else, and you can pass them around the way you do variables. In fact, you can think about a method (or function) as a variable whose value is the actual callable code object.

Since you asked about methods, I'm using methods in the following examples, but note that everything below applies identically to functions (except without the self parameter).

To call a passed method or function, you just use the name it's bound to in the same way you would use the method's (or function's) regular name:

def method1(self):
    return 'hello world'

def method2(self, methodToRun):
    result = methodToRun()
    return result


Note: I believe a __call__() method does exist, i.e. you could technically do methodToRun.__call__(), but you probably should never do so explicitly. __call__() is meant to be implemented, not to be invoked from your own code.

If you wanted method1 to be called with arguments, then things get a little bit more complicated. method2 has to be written with a bit of information about how to pass arguments to method1, and it needs to get values for those arguments from somewhere. For instance, if method1 is supposed to take one argument:

def method1(self, spam):
    return 'hello ' + str(spam)

then you could write method2 to call it with one argument that gets passed in:

def method2(self, methodToRun, spam_value):
    return methodToRun(spam_value)

or with an argument that it computes itself:

def method2(self, methodToRun):
    spam_value = compute_some_value()
    return methodToRun(spam_value)

You can expand this to other combinations of values passed in and values computed, like

def method1(self, spam, ham):
    return 'hello ' + str(spam) + ' and ' + str(ham)

def method2(self, methodToRun, ham_value):
    spam_value = compute_some_value()
    return methodToRun(spam_value, ham_value)

or even with keyword arguments

def method2(self, methodToRun, ham_value):
    spam_value = compute_some_value()
    return methodToRun(spam_value, ham=ham_value)

If you don't know, when writing method2, what arguments methodToRun is going to take, you can also use argument unpacking to call it in a generic way:

def method1(self, spam, ham):
    return 'hello ' + str(spam) + ' and ' + str(ham)

def method2(self, methodToRun, positional_arguments, keyword_arguments):
    return methodToRun(*positional_arguments, **keyword_arguments)

obj.method2(obj.method1, ['spam'], {'ham': 'ham'})

In this case positional_arguments needs to be a list or tuple or similar, and keyword_arguments is a dict or similar. In method2 you can modify positional_arguments and keyword_arguments (e.g. to add or remove certain arguments or change the values) before you call method1.

Sunday, June 6, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

Functions and function references (i.e. id-expressions of those types) decay into function pointers almost immediately, so the expressions func and f_ref actually become function pointers in your case. You can also call (***func)(5) and (******f_ref)(6) if you like.

It may be preferable to use function references in cases where you want the &-operator to work as though it had been applied to the function itself, e.g. &func is the same as &f_ref, but &f_ptr is something else.

Wednesday, June 9, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

Danny Kalev explains this quite nicely:

The Underlying Representation of Pointers to Members

Although pointers to members behave like ordinary pointers, behind the scenes their representation is quite different. In fact, a pointer to member usually consists of a struct containing up to four fields in certain cases. This is because pointers to members have to support not only ordinary member functions, but also virtual member functions, member functions of objects that have multiple base classes, and member functions of virtual base classes. Thus, the simplest member function can be represented as a set of two pointers: one holding the physical memory address of the member function, and a second pointer that holds the this pointer. However, in cases like a virtual member function, multiple inheritance and virtual inheritance, the pointer to member must store additional information. Therefore, you can't cast pointers to members to ordinary pointers nor can you safely cast between pointers to members of different types.

To get a notion of how your compiler represents pointers to members, use the sizeof operator. In the following example, the sizes of a pointer to data member and a pointer to a member function are taken. As you can see, they have different sizes, hence, different representations:

struct A
 int x;
 void f();
int A::*pmi = &A::x;
void (A::*pmf)() = &A::f;
int n = sizeof (pmi); // 8 byte with my compiler
int m = sizeof (pmf); // 12 bytes with my compiler

Note that each of these pointers may have a different representation, depending on the class in question and whether the member function is virtual.

Saturday, July 3, 2021
answered 5 Months ago
public void foo(Class c){
        try {
            Object ob = c.newInstance();
        } catch (InstantiationException ex) {
            Logger.getLogger(App.class.getName()).log(Level.SEVERE, null, ex);
        } catch (IllegalAccessException ex) {
            Logger.getLogger(App.class.getName()).log(Level.SEVERE, null, ex);
  • Here are some good examples on Reflection API

How to invoke method using reflection

 import java.lang.reflect.*;

   public class method2 {
      public int add(int a, int b)
         return a + b;

      public static void main(String args[])
         try {
           Class cls = Class.forName("method2");
           Class partypes[] = new Class[2];
            partypes[0] = Integer.TYPE;
            partypes[1] = Integer.TYPE;
            Method meth = cls.getMethod(
              "add", partypes);
            method2 methobj = new method2();
            Object arglist[] = new Object[2];
            arglist[0] = new Integer(37);
            arglist[1] = new Integer(47);
            Object retobj 
              = meth.invoke(methobj, arglist);
            Integer retval = (Integer)retobj;
         catch (Throwable e) {

Also See

  • Java Reflection
Friday, July 9, 2021
answered 5 Months ago
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