Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   184 times

I'm looking for the fastest way to get pixel data (int the form int[][]) from a BufferedImage. My goal is to be able to address pixel (x, y) from the image using int[x][y]. All the methods I have found do not do this (most of them return int[]s).

 Answers

98

I was just playing around with this same subject, which is the fastest way to access the pixels. I currently know of two ways for doing this:

  1. Using BufferedImage's getRGB() method as described in @tskuzzy's answer.
  2. By accessing the pixels array directly using:

    byte[] pixels = ((DataBufferByte) bufferedImage.getRaster().getDataBuffer()).getData();
    

If you are working with large images and performance is an issue, the first method is absolutely not the way to go. The getRGB() method combines the alpha, red, green and blue values into one int and then returns the result, which in most cases you'll do the reverse to get these values back.

The second method will return the red, green and blue values directly for each pixel, and if there is an alpha channel it will add the alpha value. Using this method is harder in terms of calculating indices, but is much faster than the first approach.

In my application I was able to reduce the time of processing the pixels by more than 90% by just switching from the first approach to the second!

Here is a comparison I've setup to compare the two approaches:

import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
import java.awt.image.DataBufferByte;
import java.io.IOException;
import javax.imageio.ImageIO;

public class PerformanceTest {

   public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {

      BufferedImage hugeImage = ImageIO.read(PerformanceTest.class.getResource("12000X12000.jpg"));

      System.out.println("Testing convertTo2DUsingGetRGB:");
      for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
         long startTime = System.nanoTime();
         int[][] result = convertTo2DUsingGetRGB(hugeImage);
         long endTime = System.nanoTime();
         System.out.println(String.format("%-2d: %s", (i + 1), toString(endTime - startTime)));
      }

      System.out.println("");

      System.out.println("Testing convertTo2DWithoutUsingGetRGB:");
      for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
         long startTime = System.nanoTime();
         int[][] result = convertTo2DWithoutUsingGetRGB(hugeImage);
         long endTime = System.nanoTime();
         System.out.println(String.format("%-2d: %s", (i + 1), toString(endTime - startTime)));
      }
   }

   private static int[][] convertTo2DUsingGetRGB(BufferedImage image) {
      int width = image.getWidth();
      int height = image.getHeight();
      int[][] result = new int[height][width];

      for (int row = 0; row < height; row++) {
         for (int col = 0; col < width; col++) {
            result[row][col] = image.getRGB(col, row);
         }
      }

      return result;
   }

   private static int[][] convertTo2DWithoutUsingGetRGB(BufferedImage image) {

      final byte[] pixels = ((DataBufferByte) image.getRaster().getDataBuffer()).getData();
      final int width = image.getWidth();
      final int height = image.getHeight();
      final boolean hasAlphaChannel = image.getAlphaRaster() != null;

      int[][] result = new int[height][width];
      if (hasAlphaChannel) {
         final int pixelLength = 4;
         for (int pixel = 0, row = 0, col = 0; pixel + 3 < pixels.length; pixel += pixelLength) {
            int argb = 0;
            argb += (((int) pixels[pixel] & 0xff) << 24); // alpha
            argb += ((int) pixels[pixel + 1] & 0xff); // blue
            argb += (((int) pixels[pixel + 2] & 0xff) << 8); // green
            argb += (((int) pixels[pixel + 3] & 0xff) << 16); // red
            result[row][col] = argb;
            col++;
            if (col == width) {
               col = 0;
               row++;
            }
         }
      } else {
         final int pixelLength = 3;
         for (int pixel = 0, row = 0, col = 0; pixel + 2 < pixels.length; pixel += pixelLength) {
            int argb = 0;
            argb += -16777216; // 255 alpha
            argb += ((int) pixels[pixel] & 0xff); // blue
            argb += (((int) pixels[pixel + 1] & 0xff) << 8); // green
            argb += (((int) pixels[pixel + 2] & 0xff) << 16); // red
            result[row][col] = argb;
            col++;
            if (col == width) {
               col = 0;
               row++;
            }
         }
      }

      return result;
   }

   private static String toString(long nanoSecs) {
      int minutes    = (int) (nanoSecs / 60000000000.0);
      int seconds    = (int) (nanoSecs / 1000000000.0)  - (minutes * 60);
      int millisecs  = (int) ( ((nanoSecs / 1000000000.0) - (seconds + minutes * 60)) * 1000);


      if (minutes == 0 && seconds == 0)
         return millisecs + "ms";
      else if (minutes == 0 && millisecs == 0)
         return seconds + "s";
      else if (seconds == 0 && millisecs == 0)
         return minutes + "min";
      else if (minutes == 0)
         return seconds + "s " + millisecs + "ms";
      else if (seconds == 0)
         return minutes + "min " + millisecs + "ms";
      else if (millisecs == 0)
         return minutes + "min " + seconds + "s";

      return minutes + "min " + seconds + "s " + millisecs + "ms";
   }
}

Can you guess the output? ;)

Testing convertTo2DUsingGetRGB:
1 : 16s 911ms
2 : 16s 730ms
3 : 16s 512ms
4 : 16s 476ms
5 : 16s 503ms
6 : 16s 683ms
7 : 16s 477ms
8 : 16s 373ms
9 : 16s 367ms
10: 16s 446ms

Testing convertTo2DWithoutUsingGetRGB:
1 : 1s 487ms
2 : 1s 940ms
3 : 1s 785ms
4 : 1s 848ms
5 : 1s 624ms
6 : 2s 13ms
7 : 1s 968ms
8 : 1s 864ms
9 : 1s 673ms
10: 2s 86ms

BUILD SUCCESSFUL (total time: 3 minutes 10 seconds)
Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
leebriggs
answered 7 Months ago
61

There's not a direct equivalent in the .NET Framework to this method. However, if your image is a System.Drawing.Bitmap, you can call the LockBits method, and this will return a BitmapData structure that contains the address of the first scanline. You can then use it to create what should be an API-compatible wrapper. I'm assuming you're using C# 3.5 or greater, so I'm using an extension method - if you're using an older flavor, change this to a regular method by dropping the 'this' from the Bitmap argument:

    public static void getRGB(this Bitmap image, int startX, int startY, int w, int h, int[] rgbArray, int offset, int scansize)
    {
        const int PixelWidth = 3;
        const PixelFormat PixelFormat = PixelFormat.Format24bppRgb;

        // En garde!
        if (image == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("image");
        if (rgbArray == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("rgbArray");
        if (startX < 0 || startX + w > image.Width) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("startX");
        if (startY < 0 || startY + h > image.Height) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("startY");
        if (w < 0 || w > scansize || w > image.Width) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("w");
        if (h < 0 || (rgbArray.Length < offset + h * scansize) || h > image.Height) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("h");

        BitmapData data = image.LockBits(new Rectangle(startX, startY, w, h), System.Drawing.Imaging.ImageLockMode.ReadOnly, PixelFormat);
        try
        {
            byte[] pixelData = new Byte[data.Stride];
            for (int scanline = 0; scanline < data.Height; scanline++)
            {
                Marshal.Copy(data.Scan0 + (scanline * data.Stride), pixelData, 0, data.Stride);
                for (int pixeloffset = 0; pixeloffset < data.Width; pixeloffset++)
                {
                    // PixelFormat.Format32bppRgb means the data is stored
                    // in memory as BGR. We want RGB, so we must do some 
                    // bit-shuffling.
                    rgbArray[offset + (scanline * scansize) + pixeloffset] = 
                        (pixelData[pixeloffset * PixelWidth + 2] << 16) +   // R 
                        (pixelData[pixeloffset * PixelWidth + 1] << 8) +    // G
                        pixelData[pixeloffset * PixelWidth];                // B
                }
            }
        }
        finally
        {
            image.UnlockBits(data);
        }
    }

This wrapper can now be called like this:

        Bitmap foo = Bitmap.FromFile(@"somefile.jpg") as Bitmap;
        int[] rgbArray = new int[100];
        foo.getRGB(1, 1, 10, 10, rgbArray, 0, 10);

Hope this helps, and welcome to .NET!

Thursday, July 29, 2021
 
KHM
answered 5 Months ago
KHM
94

The rectangle in your example appears to be a frame representing the changed portion of the image sequence, starting from 1. Open the file in Gimp to see.

enter image description here

Addendum: It looks like a feature intended to optimize rendering. At a guess, I'd say you could rely on the bounds of image number getMinIndex(); later frames appear to be subsumed in the first.

Addendum:

is there a way to get the full pixel data with the normal image and changes?

Assuming known geometry, you should be able to combine the first image and any later one in a BufferedImage, as shown here.

Code:

import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.URL;
import javax.imageio.ImageIO;
import javax.imageio.ImageReader;

public class GifBounds {

    /** @see https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5688104 */
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        search(new URL("http://i55.tinypic.com/263veb9.gif"));
    }
    public static void search(URL url) throws IOException {
        try {
            ImageReader reader = ImageIO.getImageReadersBySuffix("gif").next();
            reader.setInput(ImageIO.createImageInputStream(url.openStream()));
            int i = reader.getMinIndex();
            while (true) {
                BufferedImage bi = reader.read(i++);
                System.out.println(i
                    + ": " + bi.getWidth()
                    + ", " + bi.getHeight());
            }

        } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
            // ignored
        }
    }
}

Console:

1: 200, 220
2: 79, 95
3: 77, 94
4: 78, 95
5: 79, 95
6: 77, 94
7: 78, 95
8: 79, 95
9: 77, 94
10: 180, 205
11: 97, 111
12: 173, 200
13: 174, 155
14: 174, 155
15: 174, 155
16: 174, 155
17: 174, 155
18: 174, 155
19: 174, 155
20: 167, 200
21: 97, 111
Saturday, July 31, 2021
 
osondoar
answered 5 Months ago
80

You need to get the packed pixel value as an int, you can then use Color(int, boolean) to build a color object from which you can extract the RGBA values, for example...

private static int[][][] getPixels(BufferedImage image) {
    int[][][] result = new int[height][width][4];
    for (int x = 0; x < image.getWidth(); x++) {
        for (int y = 0; y < image.getHeight(); y++) {
            Color c = new Color(image.getRGB(i, j), true);
            result[y][x][0] = c.getRed();
            result[y][x][1] = c.getGreen();
            result[y][x][2] = c.getBlue();
            result[y][x][3] = c.getAlpha();
        }
    }
}

It's not the most efficient method, but it is one of the simplest

Saturday, July 31, 2021
 
rasmusx
answered 5 Months ago
10

As the comments already said the image data is Base64 encoded. To retrieve the binary data you have to strip the type/encoding headers, then decode the Base64 content to binary data.

String encodingPrefix = "base64,";
int contentStartIndex = dataUrl.indexOf(encodingPrefix) + encodingPrefix.length();
byte[] imageData = Base64.decodeBase64(dataUrl.substring(contentStartIndex));

I use org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64 from apaches common-codec, other Base64 decoders should work as well.

Tuesday, August 10, 2021
 
saad
answered 4 Months ago
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