Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   38 times

I'm having trouble coming up with code to generate combinations from n number of arrays with m number of elements in them, in JavaScript. I've seen similar questions about this for other languages, but the answers incorporate syntactic or library magic that I'm unsure how to translate.

Consider this data:

[[0,1], [0,1,2,3], [0,1,2]]

3 arrays, with a different number of elements in them. What I want to do is get all combinations by combining an item from each array.

For example:

0,0,0 // item 0 from array 0, item 0 from array 1, item 0 from array 2
0,0,1
0,0,2
0,1,0
0,1,1
0,1,2
0,2,0
0,2,1
0,2,2

And so on.

If the number of arrays were fixed, it would be easy to make a hard coded implementation. But the number of arrays may vary:

[[0,1], [0,1]]
[[0,1,3,4], [0,1], [0], [0,1]]

Any help would be much appreciated.

 Answers

36

Here is a quite simple and short one using a recursive helper function:

function cartesian(...args) {
    var r = [], max = args.length-1;
    function helper(arr, i) {
        for (var j=0, l=args[i].length; j<l; j++) {
            var a = arr.slice(0); // clone arr
            a.push(args[i][j]);
            if (i==max)
                r.push(a);
            else
                helper(a, i+1);
        }
    }
    helper([], 0);
    return r;
}

Usage:

cartesian([0,1], [0,1,2,3], [0,1,2]);

To make the function take an array of arrays, just change the signature to function cartesian(args) instead of using rest parameter syntax.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
felipsmartins
answered 7 Months ago
21

A simple way would be to do a double for loop over the array where you skip the first i elements in the second loop.

let array = ["apple", "banana", "lemon", "mango"];
let results = [];

// Since you only want pairs, there's no reason
// to iterate over the last element directly
for (let i = 0; i < array.length - 1; i++) {
  // This is where you'll capture that last value
  for (let j = i + 1; j < array.length; j++) {
    results.push(`${array[i]} ${array[j]}`);
  }
}

console.log(results);

Rewritten with ES5:

var array = ["apple", "banana", "lemon", "mango"];
var results = [];

// Since you only want pairs, there's no reason
// to iterate over the last element directly
for (var i = 0; i < array.length - 1; i++) {
  // This is where you'll capture that last value
  for (var j = i + 1; j < array.length; j++) {
    results.push(array[i] + ' ' + array[j]);
  }
}

console.log(results);
Thursday, June 3, 2021
 
Blacksonic
answered 7 Months ago
15

Think about it this way:

Mary <1> had <2> a <3> little <4> lamb

Each of these <number>s can be either true or false. If it is true, then you cut the sentence in that location.

So, if you have n+1 words, your problem gets reduced to going through binary representation of numbers with n bit, that is from 0 to 2^n-1

Examples:

0110 -> {'Mary had', 'a', 'little lamb'}
1111 -> {'Mary', 'had', 'a', 'little', 'lamb'}
0001 -> {'Mary had a little', 'lamb'}
1011 -> {'Mary', 'had a', 'little', 'lamb'}
Saturday, August 28, 2021
 
jvf
answered 4 Months ago
jvf
67

The problem, besides using index n where you should be using n - 1 is that you assume the array must be copied between calls (i.e. immutable behaviour).

The algorithm assumes that the array is always the same in each recursive step, so thanks to how JavaScript handles scope you can greatly simplify the code:

function permutationArr(num) 
{ 
  var arr = (num + '').split(''),
  permutations = [];   

  function swap(a, b)
  {
    var tmp = arr[a];
    arr[a] = arr[b];
    arr[b] = tmp;
  }

  function generate(n) {
    if (n == 1) {
      permutations.push(arr.join());
    } else {
      for (var i = 0; i != n; ++i) {
        generate(n - 1);
        swap(n % 2 ? 0 : i, n - 1);
      }
    }
  }

  generate(arr.length);
  return permutations;
}    

console.log(permutationArr(1234)); 

Output

["1,2,3,4", "2,1,3,4", "3,1,2,4", "1,3,2,4", "2,3,1,4", "3,2,1,4", "4,2,3,1",
 "2,4,3,1", "3,4,2,1", "4,3,2,1", "2,3,4,1", "3,2,4,1", "4,1,3,2", "1,4,3,2", 
 "3,4,1,2", "4,3,1,2", "1,3,4,2", "3,1,4,2", "4,1,2,3", "1,4,2,3", "2,4,1,3", 
 "4,2,1,3", "1,2,4,3", "2,1,4,3"]
Monday, September 27, 2021
 
Pratap Vhatkar
answered 3 Months ago
90

Use combn() with lapply() should do the trick.

x <- c('red', 'blue', 'green', 'red', 'green', 'red')

lapply(1:3, function(y) combn(x, y))

# [[1]]
     # [,1]  [,2]   [,3]    [,4]  [,5]    [,6] 
# [1,] "red" "blue" "green" "red" "green" "red"

# [[2]]
     # [,1]   [,2]    [,3]  [,4]    [,5]  [,6]    ...
# [1,] "red"  "red"   "red" "red"   "red" "blue"  ...
# [2,] "blue" "green" "red" "green" "red" "green" ...

# [[3]]
     # [,1]    [,2]   [,3]    [,4]   [,5]    [,6]    ...
# [1,] "red"   "red"  "red"   "red"  "red"   "red"   ...
# [2,] "blue"  "blue" "blue"  "blue" "green" "green" ...
# [3,] "green" "red"  "green" "red"  "red"   "green" ...

All unique combinations

lapply(cc, function(y)
  y[,!duplicated(apply(y, 2, paste, collapse="."))]
)

[[1]]
[1] "red"   "blue"  "green"

[[2]]
     [,1]   [,2]    [,3]  [,4]    [,5]   [,6]    [,7]   
[1,] "red"  "red"   "red" "blue"  "blue" "green" "green"
[2,] "blue" "green" "red" "green" "red"  "red"   "green"

[[3]]
     [,1]    [,2]   [,3]    [,4]    [,5]    [,6]  [,7]    ...
[1,] "red"   "red"  "red"   "red"   "red"   "red" "blue"  ...
[2,] "blue"  "blue" "green" "green" "red"   "red" "green" ...
[3,] "green" "red"  "red"   "green" "green" "red" "red"   ...

Although strictly speaking those aren't all unique combinations, as some of them are permutations of each other.

Properly unique combinations

lapply(cc, function(y)
  y[,!duplicated(apply(y, 2, function(z) paste(sort(z), collapse=".")))]
)

# [[1]]
# [1] "red"   "blue"  "green"

# [[2]]
     # [,1]   [,2]    [,3]  [,4]    [,5]   
# [1,] "red"  "red"   "red" "blue"  "green"
# [2,] "blue" "green" "red" "green" "green"

# [[3]]
     # [,1]    [,2]   [,3]    [,4]    [,5]  [,6]   
# [1,] "red"   "red"  "red"   "red"   "red" "blue" 
# [2,] "blue"  "blue" "green" "green" "red" "green"
# [3,] "green" "red"  "red"   "green" "red" "green"
Saturday, November 6, 2021
 
St.Antario
answered 1 Month ago
Only authorized users can answer the question. Please sign in first, or register a free account.
Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged :  
Share