Asked  6 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   37 times

Why does Java have transient fields?



The transient keyword in Java is used to indicate that a field should not be part of the serialization (which means saved, like to a file) process.

From the Java Language Specification, Java SE 7 Edition, Section transient Fields:

Variables may be marked transient to indicate that they are not part of the persistent state of an object.

For example, you may have fields that are derived from other fields, and should only be done so programmatically, rather than having the state be persisted via serialization.

Here's a GalleryImage class which contains an image and a thumbnail derived from the image:

class GalleryImage implements Serializable
    private Image image;
    private transient Image thumbnailImage;

    private void generateThumbnail()
        // Generate thumbnail.

    private void readObject(ObjectInputStream inputStream)
            throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException

In this example, the thumbnailImage is a thumbnail image that is generated by invoking the generateThumbnail method.

The thumbnailImage field is marked as transient, so only the original image is serialized rather than persisting both the original image and the thumbnail image. This means that less storage would be needed to save the serialized object. (Of course, this may or may not be desirable depending on the requirements of the system -- this is just an example.)

At the time of deserialization, the readObject method is called to perform any operations necessary to restore the state of the object back to the state at which the serialization occurred. Here, the thumbnail needs to be generated, so the readObject method is overridden so that the thumbnail will be generated by calling the generateThumbnail method.

For additional information, the Discover the secrets of the Java Serialization API article (which was originally available on the Sun Developer Network) has a section which discusses the use of and presents a scenario where the transient keyword is used to prevent serialization of certain fields.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

The idea behind inner classes is to operate in the context of the enclosing instance. Somehow, allowing static variables and methods contradicts this motivation?

8.1.2 Inner Classes and Enclosing Instances

An inner class is a nested class that is not explicitly or implicitly declared static. Inner classes may not declare static initializers (§8.7) or member interfaces. Inner classes may not declare static members, unless they are compile-time constant fields (§15.28).

Friday, June 4, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

Java's transient keyword is used to denote that a field is not to be serialized, whereas JPA's @Transient annotation is used to indicate that a field is not to be persisted in the database, i.e. their semantics are different.

Friday, June 4, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

static members are never overridden (and certainly not by non-static members). And since you should access them like this: ClassName.member there is also no need to worry about hiding them.

In your case, you would access the Superclass field like this: Superclass.field. And the field of a Subclass instance like this: subclass.field. If you have, however a Subclass instance in a Superclass variable like above, this code: d.field will access the static field defined in Superclass, which will be false in your case.

But this does not change the value of the Subclass instance, it just accesses the "wrong" member! You can verify this by putting the instance in d back into a Subclass variable and reading field again.

Monday, July 5, 2021
answered 5 Months ago

With this it now works pefectly fine (it doesn't even need "setUpValidation"):

public void initialize(URL arg0, ResourceBundle arg1) {

public void OKButtonClicked() {
        //also: call validation class here
    } catch(ValidationException e) {


private void setRed(TextField tf) {
    ObservableList<String> styleClass = tf.getStyleClass();

    if(!styleClass.contains("tferror")) {

private void removeRed(TextField tf) {
    ObservableList<String> styleClass = tf.getStyleClass();

And in the css I added the following (unfortunately it didn't change the border width with "-fx-border-width: 2px" anymore):

.tferror {  
     -fx-text-box-border: red ;
     -fx-focus-color: red ;   
Monday, August 9, 2021
answered 4 Months ago
Only authorized users can answer the question. Please sign in first, or register a free account.
Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged :