Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  2   Viewed   35 times

I am trying to reconcile my understand of LSTMs and pointed out here in this post by Christopher Olah implemented in Keras. I am following the blog written by Jason Brownlee for the Keras tutorial. What I am mainly confused about is,

  1. The reshaping of the data series into [samples, time steps, features] and,
  2. The stateful LSTMs

Lets concentrate on the above two questions with reference to the code pasted below:

# reshape into X=t and Y=t+1
look_back = 3
trainX, trainY = create_dataset(train, look_back)
testX, testY = create_dataset(test, look_back)

# reshape input to be [samples, time steps, features]
trainX = numpy.reshape(trainX, (trainX.shape[0], look_back, 1))
testX = numpy.reshape(testX, (testX.shape[0], look_back, 1))
# create and fit the LSTM network
batch_size = 1
model = Sequential()
model.add(LSTM(4, batch_input_shape=(batch_size, look_back, 1), stateful=True))
model.compile(loss='mean_squared_error', optimizer='adam')
for i in range(100):, trainY, nb_epoch=1, batch_size=batch_size, verbose=2, shuffle=False)

Note: create_dataset takes a sequence of length N and returns a N-look_back array of which each element is a look_back length sequence.

What is Time Steps and Features?

As can be seen TrainX is a 3-D array with Time_steps and Feature being the last two dimensions respectively (3 and 1 in this particular code). With respect to the image below, does this mean that we are considering the many to one case, where the number of pink boxes are 3? Or does it literally mean the chain length is 3 (i.e. only 3 green boxes considered). enter image description here

Does the features argument become relevant when we consider multivariate series? e.g. modelling two financial stocks simultaneously?

Stateful LSTMs

Does stateful LSTMs mean that we save the cell memory values between runs of batches? If this is the case, batch_size is one, and the memory is reset between the training runs so what was the point of saying that it was stateful. I'm guessing this is related to the fact that training data is not shuffled, but I'm not sure how.

Any thoughts? Image reference:

Edit 1:

A bit confused about @van's comment about the red and green boxes being equal. So just to confirm, does the following API calls correspond to the unrolled diagrams? Especially noting the second diagram (batch_size was arbitrarily chosen.): enter image description here enter image description here

Edit 2:

For people who have done Udacity's deep learning course and still confused about the time_step argument, look at the following discussion:


It turns out model.add(TimeDistributed(Dense(vocab_len))) was what I was looking for. Here is an example:


I have summarised most of my understanding of LSTMs here:



First of all, you choose great tutorials(1,2) to start.

What Time-step means: Time-steps==3 in X.shape (Describing data shape) means there are three pink boxes. Since in Keras each step requires an input, therefore the number of the green boxes should usually equal to the number of red boxes. Unless you hack the structure.

many to many vs. many to one: In keras, there is a return_sequences parameter when your initializing LSTM or GRU or SimpleRNN. When return_sequences is False (by default), then it is many to one as shown in the picture. Its return shape is (batch_size, hidden_unit_length), which represent the last state. When return_sequences is True, then it is many to many. Its return shape is (batch_size, time_step, hidden_unit_length)

Does the features argument become relevant: Feature argument means "How big is your red box" or what is the input dimension each step. If you want to predict from, say, 8 kinds of market information, then you can generate your data with feature==8.

Stateful: You can look up the source code. When initializing the state, if stateful==True, then the state from last training will be used as the initial state, otherwise it will generate a new state. I haven't turn on stateful yet. However, I disagree with that the batch_size can only be 1 when stateful==True.

Currently, you generate your data with collected data. Image your stock information is coming as stream, rather than waiting for a day to collect all sequential, you would like to generate input data online while training/predicting with network. If you have 400 stocks sharing a same network, then you can set batch_size==400.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

Let me explain it via an example:

So let's say you have the following series: 1,2,3,4,5,6,...,100. You have to decide how many timesteps your lstm will learn, and reshape your data as so. Like below:

if you decide time_steps = 5, you have to reshape your time series as a matrix of samples in this way:

1,2,3,4,5 -> sample1

2,3,4,5,6 -> sample2

3,4,5,6,7 -> sample3


By doing so, you will end with a matrix of shape (96 samples x 5 timesteps)

This matrix should be reshape as (96 x 5 x 1) indicating Keras that you have just 1 time series. If you have more time series in parallel (as in your case), you do the same operation on each time series, so you will end with n matrices (one for each time series) each of shape (96 sample x 5 timesteps).

For the sake of argument, let's say you 3 time series. You should concat all of three matrices into one single tensor of shape (96 samples x 5 timeSteps x 3 timeSeries). The first layer of your lstm for this example would be:

    model = Sequential()
    model.add(LSTM(32, input_shape=(5, 3)))

The 32 as first parameter is totally up to you. It means that at each point in time, your 3 time series will become 32 different variables as output space. It is easier to think each time step as a fully conected layer with 3 inputs and 32 outputs but with a different computation than FC layers.

If you are about stacking multiple lstm layers, use return_sequences=True parameter, so the layer will output the whole predicted sequence rather than just the last value.

your target shoud be the next value in the series you want to predict.

Putting all together, let say you have the following time series:

Time series 1 (master): 1,2,3,4,5,6,..., 100

Time series 2 (support): 2,4,6,8,10,12,..., 200

Time series 3 (support): 3,6,9,12,15,18,..., 300

Create the input and target tensor

x     -> y

1,2,3,4,5 -> 6

2,3,4,5,6 -> 7

3,4,5,6,7 -> 8

reformat the rest of time series, but forget about the target since you don't want to predict those series

Create your model

    model = Sequential()
    model.add(LSTM(32, input_shape=(5, 3), return_sequences=True)) # Input is shape (5 timesteps x 3 timeseries), output is shape (5 timesteps x 32 variables) because return_sequences  = True
    model.add(LSTM(8))  # output is shape (1 timesteps x 8 variables) because return_sequences = False
    model.add(Dense(1, activation='linear')) # output is (1 timestep x 1 output unit on dense layer). It is compare to target variable.

Compile it and train. A good batch size is 32. Batch size is the size your sample matrices are splited for faster computation. Just don't use statefull

Saturday, July 31, 2021
answered 4 Months ago
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