Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   26 times

Say I have a fairly hefty JavaScript file, packed down to roughly 100kb or so. By file I mean it’s an external file that would be linked in via <script src="...">, not pasted into the HTML itself.

Where’s the best place to put this in the HTML?

    <!-- here? -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="stylez.css" type="text/css" />
    <!-- here? -->
    <!-- here? -->
    <p>All the page content ...</p>
    <!-- or here? -->

Will there be any functional difference between each of the options?



The Yahoo! Exceptional Performance team recommend placing scripts at the bottom of your page because of the way browsers download components.

Of course Levi's comment "just before you need it and no sooner" is really the correct answer, i.e. "it depends".

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

Remove/Minimize any bottlenecks on the server side. For this purpose, use a profiler like Xdebug or Zend Debugger to find out where your application is doing expensive and slow operations. Implement caching where possible. Use an OpCode Cache. If this still isn't fast enough consider investing in more CPU or RAM or SSDs (depending on whether you are CPU, IO or Memory bound)

For general server/client side optimizations, see the Yahoo YSlow! User Guide.

It basically sums it up to:

  1. Minimize HTTP Requests
  2. Use a Content Delivery Network
  3. Add an Expires or a Cache-Control Header
  4. Gzip Components
  5. Put StyleSheets at the Top
  6. Put Scripts at the Bottom
  7. Avoid CSS Expressions
  8. Make JavaScript and CSS External
  9. Reduce DNS Lookups
  10. Minify JavaScript and CSS
  11. Avoid Redirects
  12. Remove Duplicate Scripts
  13. Configure ETags
  14. Make AJAX Cacheable
  15. Use GET for AJAX Requests
  16. Reduce the Number of DOM Elements
  17. No 404s
  18. Reduce Cookie Size
  19. Use Cookie-Free Domains for Components
  20. Avoid Filters
  21. Do Not Scale Images in HTML
  22. Make favicon.ico Small and Cacheable

Also see the comments contributed below, as they contain some additional useful information for other users.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
answered 9 Months ago

Redraw Regions

The best canvas optimization technique for animations is to limit the amount of pixels that get cleared/painted on each frame. The easiest solution to implement is resetting the entire canvas element and drawing everything over again but that is an expensive operation for your browser to process.

Reuse as many pixels as possible between frames. What that means is the fewer pixels that need to be processed each frame, the faster your program will run. For example, when erasing pixels with the clearRect(x, y, w, h) method, it is very beneficial to clear and redraw only the pixels that have changed and not the full canvas.

Procedural Sprites

Generating graphics procedurally is often the way to go, but sometimes that's not the most efficient one. If you're drawing simple shapes with solid fills then drawing them procedurally is the best way do so. But if you're drawing more detailed entities with strokes, gradient fills and other performance sensitive make-up you'd be better off using image sprites.

It is possible to get away with a mix of both. Draw graphical entities procedurally on the canvas once as your application starts up. After that you can reuse the same sprites by painting copies of them instead of generating the same drop-shadow, gradient and strokes repeatedly.

State Stack & Transformation

The canvas can be manipulated via transformations such as rotation and scaling, resulting in a change to the canvas coordinate system. This is where it's important to know about the state stack for which two methods are available: (pushes the current state to the stack) and context.restore() (reverts to the previous state). This enables you to apply transformation to a drawing and then restore back to the previous state to make sure the next shape is not affected by any earlier transformation. The states also include properties such as the fill and stroke colors.


A very powerful tool at hand when working with canvas is compositing modes which, amongst other things, allow for masking and layering. There's a wide array of available composite modes and they are all set through the canvas context's globalCompositeOperation property. The composite modes are also part of the state stack properties, so you can apply a composite operation, stack the state and apply a different one, and restore back to the state before where you made the first one. This can be especially useful.


To allow for sub-pixel drawings, all browser implementations of canvas employ anti-aliasing (although this does not seem to be a requirement in the HTML5 spec). Anti-aliasing can be important to keep in mind if you want to draw crisp lines and notice the result looks blurred. This occurs because the browser will interpolate the image as though it was actually between those pixels. It results in a much smoother animation (you can genuinely move at half a pixel per update) but it'll make your images appear fuzzy.

To work around this you will need to either round to whole integer values or offset by half a pixel depending on if you're drawing fills or strokes.

Using Whole Numbers for drawImage() x and y positions

If you call drawImage on the Canvas element, it's much faster if you round the x and y position to a whole number.

Here's a test case on jsperf showing how much faster using whole numbers is compared to using decimals.

So round your x and y position to whole numbers before rendering.

Faster than Math.round()

Another jsperf test shows that Math.round() is not necessarily the fastest method for rounding numbers. Using a bitwise hack actually turns out to be faster than the built in method.

Canvas Sprite Optimization

Clearing the Canvas

To clear the entire canvas of any existing pixels context.clearRect(x, y, w, h) is typically used – but there is another option available. Whenever the width/height of the canvas are set, even if they are set to the same value repeatedly, the canvas is reset. This is good to know when working with a dynamically sized canvas as you will notice drawings disappearing.

Computation Distribution

The Chrome Developer Tools profiler is very useful for finding out what your performance bottlenecks are. Depending on your application you may need to refactor some parts of your program to improve the performance and how browsers handle specific parts of your code.

Optimization techniques

Tuesday, June 15, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

The rules are fast and loose on this, There is no right or wrong way only better and less-better. (well after the </html> is wrong)

Generally speaking, javascript in the head of the document might block rendering of the page until the file is loaded in some browsers *cough*IE*cough*. This is due to a limit of simultaneous connections. So some people put them before the closing html tag. You can use a library to asynchronously load the javascript to avoid this blocking.

If you're using a library, or checking for the DOM to be loaded before executing code there's really no issue of where it's placed. However if you're not doing that it's probably better to put it at the end.

Sunday, October 10, 2021
answered 2 Months ago

You would either need to

  • write your own lexer plugin (may possibly have an issue of conflicting with the internal HTML lexer), or
  • modify the source and compile your own notepad++/Scilexer.dll

Both are not quick undertakings.

Sunday, November 14, 2021
Bojan Kseneman
answered 2 Weeks ago
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