Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   36 times

I am trying to concatenate strings in Java. Why isn't this working?

public class StackOverflowTest {  
    public static void main(String args[]) {
        int theNumber = 42;
        System.out.println("Your number is " . theNumber . "!");



You can concatenate Strings using the + operator:

System.out.println("Your number is " + theNumber + "!");

theNumber is implicitly converted to the String "42".

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

Use the map method:

var a = [1, 2, 3]
var b = ['a', 'b', 'c']

var c =, i) {
  return [e, b[i]];



Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

C does not have the support for strings that some other languages have. A string in C is just a pointer to an array of char that is terminated by the first null character. There is no string concatenation operator in C.

Use strcat to concatenate two strings. You could use the following function to do it:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

char* concat(const char *s1, const char *s2)
    char *result = malloc(strlen(s1) + strlen(s2) + 1); // +1 for the null-terminator
    // in real code you would check for errors in malloc here
    strcpy(result, s1);
    strcat(result, s2);
    return result;

This is not the fastest way to do this, but you shouldn't be worrying about that now. Note that the function returns a block of heap allocated memory to the caller and passes on ownership of that memory. It is the responsibility of the caller to free the memory when it is no longer needed.

Call the function like this:

char* s = concat("derp", "herp");
// do things with s
free(s); // deallocate the string

If you did happen to be bothered by performance then you would want to avoid repeatedly scanning the input buffers looking for the null-terminator.

char* concat(const char *s1, const char *s2)
    const size_t len1 = strlen(s1);
    const size_t len2 = strlen(s2);
    char *result = malloc(len1 + len2 + 1); // +1 for the null-terminator
    // in real code you would check for errors in malloc here
    memcpy(result, s1, len1);
    memcpy(result + len1, s2, len2 + 1); // +1 to copy the null-terminator
    return result;

If you are planning to do a lot of work with strings then you may be better off using a different language that has first class support for strings.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

The first part of your question is simple: Java compiler treats concatenation of multiple string literals as a single string literal, i.e.

"I Love" + " Java"


"I Love Java"

are two identical string literals, which get properly interned.

The same interning behavior does not apply to += operation on strings, so b1 and b2 are actually constructed at run-time.

The second part is trickier. Recall that b1.intern() may return b1 or some other String object that is equal to it. When you keep a1 and a2, you get a1 back from the call to b1.intern(). When you comment out a1 and a2, there is no existing copy to be returned, so b1.intern() gives you back b1 itself.

Saturday, June 19, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

What is the prettiest way to concatenate String with potential null or undefined object without falling into this problem [...]?

There are several ways, and you partly mentioned them yourself. To make it short, the only clean way I can think of is a function:

const Strings = {};
Strings.orEmpty = function( entity ) {
    return entity || "";

// usage
const message = "This is a " + Strings.orEmpty( test );

Of course, you can (and should) change the actual implementation to suit your needs. And this is already why I think this method is superior: it introduced encapsulation.

Really, you only have to ask what the "prettiest" way is, if you don't have encapsulation. You ask yourself this question because you already know that you are going to get yourself into a place where you cannot change the implementation anymore, so you want it to be perfect right away. But that's the thing: requirements, views and even envrionments change. They evolve. So why not allow yourself to change the implementation with as little as adapting one line and perhaps one or two tests?

You could call this cheating, because it doesn't really answer how to implement the actual logic. But that's my point: it doesn't matter. Well, maybe a little. But really, there is no need to worry because of how simple it would be to change. And since it's not inlined, it also looks a lot prettier – whether or not you implement it this way or in a more sophisticated way.

If, throughout your code, you keep repeating the || inline, you run into two problems:

  • You duplicate code.
  • And because you duplicate code, you make it hard to maintain and change in the future.

And these are two points commonly known to be anti-patterns when it comes to high-quality software development.

Some people will say that this is too much overhead; they will talk about performance. It's non-sense. For one, this barely adds overhead. If this is what you are worried about, you chose the wrong language. Even jQuery uses functions. People need to get over micro-optimization.

The other thing is: you can use a code "compiler" = minifier. Good tools in this area will try to detect which statements to inline during the compilation step. This way, you keep your code clean and maintainable and can still get that last drop of performance if you still believe in it or really do have an environment where this matters.

Lastly, have some faith in browsers. They will optimize code and they do a pretty darn good job at it these days.

Tuesday, June 22, 2021
answered 6 Months ago
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