Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   32 times

Edit: From another question I provided an answer that has links to a lot of questions/answers about singletons: More info about singletons here:

So I have read the thread Singletons: good design or a crutch?
And the argument still rages.

I see Singletons as a Design Pattern (good and bad).

The problem with Singleton is not the Pattern but rather the users (sorry everybody). Everybody and their father thinks they can implement one correctly (and from the many interviews I have done, most people can't). Also because everybody thinks they can implement a correct Singleton they abuse the Pattern and use it in situations that are not appropriate (replacing global variables with Singletons!).

So the main questions that need to be answered are:

  • When should you use a Singleton
  • How do you implement a Singleton correctly

My hope for this article is that we can collect together in a single place (rather than having to google and search multiple sites) an authoritative source of when (and then how) to use a Singleton correctly. Also appropriate would be a list of Anti-Usages and common bad implementations explaining why they fail to work and for good implementations their weaknesses.


So get the ball rolling:
I will hold my hand up and say this is what I use but probably has problems.
I like "Scott Myers" handling of the subject in his books "Effective C++"

Good Situations to use Singletons (not many):

  • Logging frameworks
  • Thread recycling pools
/*
 * C++ Singleton
 * Limitation: Single Threaded Design
 * See: http://www.aristeia.com/Papers/DDJ_Jul_Aug_2004_revised.pdf
 *      For problems associated with locking in multi threaded applications
 *
 * Limitation:
 * If you use this Singleton (A) within a destructor of another Singleton (B)
 * This Singleton (A) must be fully constructed before the constructor of (B)
 * is called.
 */
class MySingleton
{
    private:
        // Private Constructor
        MySingleton();
        // Stop the compiler generating methods of copy the object
        MySingleton(MySingleton const& copy);            // Not Implemented
        MySingleton& operator=(MySingleton const& copy); // Not Implemented

    public:
        static MySingleton& getInstance()
        {
            // The only instance
            // Guaranteed to be lazy initialized
            // Guaranteed that it will be destroyed correctly
            static MySingleton instance;
            return instance;
        }
};

OK. Lets get some criticism and other implementations together.
:-)

 Answers

86

Answer:

Use a Singleton if:

  • You need to have one and only one object of a type in system

Do not use a Singleton if:

  • You want to save memory
  • You want to try something new
  • You want to show off how much you know
  • Because everyone else is doing it (See cargo cult programmer in wikipedia)
  • In user interface widgets
  • It is supposed to be a cache
  • In strings
  • In Sessions
  • I can go all day long

How to create the best singleton:

  • The smaller, the better. I am a minimalist
  • Make sure it is thread safe
  • Make sure it is never null
  • Make sure it is created only once
  • Lazy or system initialization? Up to your requirements
  • Sometimes the OS or the JVM creates singletons for you (e.g. in Java every class definition is a singleton)
  • Provide a destructor or somehow figure out how to dispose resources
  • Use little memory
Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
TheLovelySausage
answered 7 Months ago
79

Actually, all of those examples on the web wherein the common content/file type like "js", "css", "img", etc is been used as library name are misleading.

Real world examples

To start, let's look at how existing JSF implementations like Mojarra and MyFaces and JSF component libraries like PrimeFaces and OmniFaces use it. No one of them use resource libraries this way. They use it (under the covers, by @ResourceDependency or UIViewRoot#addComponentResource()) the following way:

<h:outputScript library="javax.faces" name="jsf.js" />
<h:outputScript library="primefaces" name="jquery/jquery.js" />
<h:outputScript library="omnifaces" name="omnifaces.js" />
<h:outputScript library="omnifaces" name="fixviewstate.js" />
<h:outputScript library="omnifaces.combined" name="[dynamicname].js" />
<h:outputStylesheet library="primefaces" name="primefaces.css" />
<h:outputStylesheet library="primefaces-aristo" name="theme.css" />
<h:outputStylesheet library="primefaces-vader" name="theme.css" />

It should become clear that it basically represents the common library/module/theme name where all of those resources commonly belong to.

Easier identifying

This way it's so much easier to specify and distinguish where those resources belong to and/or are coming from. Imagine that you happen to have a primefaces.css resource in your own webapp wherein you're overriding/finetuning some default CSS of PrimeFaces; if PrimeFaces didn't use a library name for its own primefaces.css, then the PrimeFaces own one wouldn't be loaded, but instead the webapp-supplied one, which would break the look'n'feel.

Also, when you're using a custom ResourceHandler, you can also apply more finer grained control over resources coming from a specific library when library is used the right way. If all component libraries would have used "js" for all their JS files, how would the ResourceHandler ever distinguish if it's coming from a specific component library? Examples are OmniFaces CombinedResourceHandler and GraphicResourceHandler; check the createResource() method wherein the library is checked before delegating to next resource handler in chain. This way they know when to create CombinedResource or GraphicResource for the purpose.

Noted should be that RichFaces did it wrong. It didn't use any library at all and homebrewed another resource handling layer over it and it's therefore impossible to programmatically identify RichFaces resources. That's exactly the reason why OmniFaces CombinedResourceHander had to introduce a reflection-based hack in order to get it to work anyway with RichFaces resources.

Your own webapp

Your own webapp does not necessarily need a resource library. You'd best just omit it.

<h:outputStylesheet name="css/style.css" />
<h:outputScript name="js/script.js" />
<h:graphicImage name="img/logo.png" />

Or, if you really need to have one, you can just give it a more sensible common name, like "default" or some company name.

<h:outputStylesheet library="default" name="css/style.css" />
<h:outputScript library="default" name="js/script.js" />
<h:graphicImage library="default" name="img/logo.png" />

Or, when the resources are specific to some master Facelets template, you could also give it the name of the template, so that it's easier to relate each other. In other words, it's more for self-documentary purposes. E.g. in a /WEB-INF/templates/layout.xhtml template file:

<h:outputStylesheet library="layout" name="css/style.css" />
<h:outputScript library="layout" name="js/script.js" />

And a /WEB-INF/templates/admin.xhtml template file:

<h:outputStylesheet library="admin" name="css/style.css" />
<h:outputScript library="admin" name="js/script.js" />

For a real world example, check the OmniFaces showcase source code.

Or, when you'd like to share the same resources over multiple webapps and have created a "common" project for that based on the same example as in this answer which is in turn embedded as JAR in webapp's /WEB-INF/lib, then also reference it as library (name is free to your choice; component libraries like OmniFaces and PrimeFaces also work that way):

<h:outputStylesheet library="common" name="css/style.css" />
<h:outputScript library="common" name="js/script.js" />
<h:graphicImage library="common" name="img/logo.png" />

Library versioning

Another main advantage is that you can apply resource library versioning the right way on resources provided by your own webapp (this doesn't work for resources embedded in a JAR). You can create a direct child subfolder in the library folder with a name in the d+(_d+)* pattern to denote the resource library version.

WebContent
 |-- resources
 |    `-- default
 |         `-- 1_0
 |              |-- css
 |              |    `-- style.css
 |              |-- img
 |              |    `-- logo.png
 |              `-- js
 |                   `-- script.js
 :

When using this markup:

<h:outputStylesheet library="default" name="css/style.css" />
<h:outputScript library="default" name="js/script.js" />
<h:graphicImage library="default" name="img/logo.png" />

This will generate the following HTML with the library version as v parameter:

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/contextname/javax.faces.resource/css/style.css.xhtml?ln=default&amp;v=1_0" />
<script type="text/javascript" src="/contextname/javax.faces.resource/js/script.js.xhtml?ln=default&amp;v=1_0"></script>
<img src="/contextname/javax.faces.resource/img/logo.png.xhtml?ln=default&amp;v=1_0" alt="" />

So, if you have edited/updated some resource, then all you need to do is to copy or rename the version folder into a new value. If you have multiple version folders, then the JSF ResourceHandler will automatically serve the resource from the highest version number, according to numerical ordering rules.

So, when copying/renaming resources/default/1_0/* folder into resources/default/1_1/* like follows:

WebContent
 |-- resources
 |    `-- default
 |         |-- 1_0
 |         |    :
 |         |
 |         `-- 1_1
 |              |-- css
 |              |    `-- style.css
 |              |-- img
 |              |    `-- logo.png
 |              `-- js
 |                   `-- script.js
 :

Then the last markup example would generate the following HTML:

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/contextname/javax.faces.resource/css/style.css.xhtml?ln=default&amp;v=1_1" />
<script type="text/javascript" src="/contextname/javax.faces.resource/js/script.js.xhtml?ln=default&amp;v=1_1"></script>
<img src="/contextname/javax.faces.resource/img/logo.png.xhtml?ln=default&amp;v=1_1" alt="" />

This will force the webbrowser to request the resource straight from the server instead of showing the one with the same name from the cache, when the URL with the changed parameter is been requested for the first time. This way the endusers aren't required to do a hard refresh (Ctrl+F5 and so on) when they need to retrieve the updated CSS/JS resource.

Please note that library versioning is not possible for resources enclosed in a JAR file. You'd need a custom ResourceHandler. See also How to use JSF versioning for resources in jar.

See also:

  • JSF resource versioning
  • JSF2 Static resource caching
  • Structure for multiple JSF projects with shared code
  • JSF 2.0 specification - Chapter 2.6 Resource Handling
Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
Norgul
answered 7 Months ago
41

How does it work?

When a JSF view (Facelets/JSP file) get built/restored, a JSF component tree will be produced. At that moment, the view build time, all binding attributes are evaluated (along with id attribtues and taghandlers like JSTL). When the JSF component needs to be created before being added to the component tree, JSF will check if the binding attribute returns a precreated component (i.e. non-null) and if so, then use it. If it's not precreated, then JSF will autocreate the component "the usual way" and invoke the setter behind binding attribute with the autocreated component instance as argument.

In effects, it binds a reference of the component instance in the component tree to a scoped variable. This information is in no way visible in the generated HTML representation of the component itself. This information is in no means relevant to the generated HTML output anyway. When the form is submitted and the view is restored, the JSF component tree is just rebuilt from scratch and all binding attributes will just be re-evaluated like described in above paragraph. After the component tree is recreated, JSF will restore the JSF view state into the component tree.

Component instances are request scoped!

Important to know and understand is that the concrete component instances are effectively request scoped. They're newly created on every request and their properties are filled with values from JSF view state during restore view phase. So, if you bind the component to a property of a backing bean, then the backing bean should absolutely not be in a broader scope than the request scope. See also JSF 2.0 specitication chapter 3.1.5:

3.1.5 Component Bindings

...

Component bindings are often used in conjunction with JavaBeans that are dynamically instantiated via the Managed Bean Creation facility (see Section 5.8.1 “VariableResolver and the Default VariableResolver”). It is strongly recommend that application developers place managed beans that are pointed at by component binding expressions in “request” scope. This is because placing it in session or application scope would require thread-safety, since UIComponent instances depends on running inside of a single thread. There are also potentially negative impacts on memory management when placing a component binding in “session” scope.

Otherwise, component instances are shared among multiple requests, possibly resulting in "duplicate component ID" errors and "weird" behaviors because validators, converters and listeners declared in the view are re-attached to the existing component instance from previous request(s). The symptoms are clear: they are executed multiple times, one time more with each request within the same scope as the component is been bound to.

And, under heavy load (i.e. when multiple different HTTP requests (threads) access and manipulate the very same component instance at the same time), you may face sooner or later an application crash with e.g. Stuck thread at UIComponent.popComponentFromEL, or Java Threads at 100% CPU utilization using richfaces UIDataAdaptorBase and its internal HashMap, or even some "strange" IndexOutOfBoundsException or ConcurrentModificationException coming straight from JSF implementation source code while JSF is busy saving or restoring the view state (i.e. the stack trace indicates saveState() or restoreState() methods and like).

Using binding on a bean property is bad practice

Regardless, using binding this way, binding a whole component instance to a bean property, even on a request scoped bean, is in JSF 2.x a rather rare use case and generally not the best practice. It indicates a design smell. You normally declare components in the view side and bind their runtime attributes like value, and perhaps others like styleClass, disabled, rendered, etc, to normal bean properties. Then, you just manipulate exactly that bean property you want instead of grabbing the whole component and calling the setter method associated with the attribute.

In cases when a component needs to be "dynamically built" based on a static model, better is to use view build time tags like JSTL, if necessary in a tag file, instead of createComponent(), new SomeComponent(), getChildren().add() and what not. See also How to refactor snippet of old JSP to some JSF equivalent?

Or, if a component needs to be "dynamically rendered" based on a dynamic model, then just use an iterator component (<ui:repeat>, <h:dataTable>, etc). See also How to dynamically add JSF components.

Composite components is a completely different story. It's completely legit to bind components inside a <cc:implementation> to the backing component (i.e. the component identified by <cc:interface componentType>. See also a.o. Split java.util.Date over two h:inputText fields representing hour and minute with f:convertDateTime and How to implement a dynamic list with a JSF 2.0 Composite Component?

Only use binding in local scope

However, sometimes you'd like to know about the state of a different component from inside a particular component, more than often in use cases related to action/value dependent validation. For that, the binding attribute can be used, but not in combination with a bean property. You can just specify an in the local EL scope unique variable name in the binding attribute like so binding="#{foo}" and the component is during render response elsewhere in the same view directly as UIComponent reference available by #{foo}. Here are several related questions where such a solution is been used in the answer:

  • Validate input as required only if certain command button is pressed
  • How to render a component only if another component is not rendered?
  • JSF 2 dataTable row index without dataModel
  • Primefaces dependent selectOneMenu and required="true"
  • Validate a group of fields as required when at least one of them is filled
  • How to change css class for the inputfield and label when validation fails?
  • Getting JSF-defined component with Javascript
  • Use an EL expression to pass a component ID to a composite component in JSF

    (and that's only from the last month...)

See also:

  • How to use component binding in JSF right ? (request-scoped component in session scoped bean)
  • View scope: java.io.NotSerializableException: javax.faces.component.html.HtmlInputText
  • Binding attribute causes duplicate component ID found in the view
Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
Extrakun
answered 7 Months ago
82

In C++11 it is thread safe:

§6.7 [stmt.dcl] p4 If control enters the declaration concurrently while the variable is being initialized, the concurrent execution shall wait for completion of the initialization.

In C++03:

  • Under g++ it is thread safe.
    But this is because g++ explicitly adds code to guarantee it.

One problem is that if you have two singletons and they try and use each other during construction and destruction.

Read this: Finding C++ static initialization order problems

A variation on this problem is if the singleton is accessed from the destructor of a global variable. In this situation the singleton has definitely been destroyed, but the get method will still return a reference to the destroyed object.

There are ways around this but they are messy and not worth doing. Just don't access a singleton from the destructor of a global variable.

A Safer definition but ugly:
I am sure you can add some appropriate macros to tidy this up

SomeBaseClass &SomeClass::GetInstance()
{
#ifdef _WIN32 
Start Critical Section Here
#elif  defined(__GNUC__) && (__GNUC__ > 3)
// You are OK
#else
#error Add Critical Section for your platform
#endif

    static SomeClass instance;

#ifdef _WIN32
END Critical Section Here
#endif 

    return instance;
}
Wednesday, June 2, 2021
 
Grzegorz
answered 7 Months ago
92

Once you get the SingletonProperty (which is the single instance of an Object), anything after that can be implemented as if you were creating a class to be instanciated because the Singleton is really a single instance of a regular Object.

For example, the following Singleton (obviously not the best Singleton design, but bear with me) offers up two public Properties called Value and Name:

public class MySingleton
{
    private static MySingleton _instance;    

    private MySingleton() { }

    public static MySingleton Instance
    {
        get
        {
            if(_instance == null)
                _instance = new MySingleton();

            return _instance;
        }
    }

    // Your properties can then be whatever you want
    public string Value { get; set; }

    public string Name { get; set; }
}

Accessing these properties would look like:

MySingleton.Instance.Name = "StackOverflow";

MySingleton.Instance.Value = "Rocks!";
Friday, October 29, 2021
 
Tim
answered 1 Month ago
Tim
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