Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   42 times

Today I was browsing through some questions on this site and I found a mention of an enum being used in singleton pattern about purported thread safety benefits to such solution.

I have never used enums and I have been programing in Java for more than couple a years now. And apparently they changed a lot. Now they even do full blown support of OOP within themselves.

Now why and what for should I use enum in day to day programming?



You should always use enums when a variable (especially a method parameter) can only take one out of a small set of possible values. Examples would be things like type constants (contract status: "permanent", "temp", "apprentice"), or flags ("execute now", "defer execution").

If you use enums instead of integers (or String codes), you increase compile-time checking and avoid errors from passing in invalid constants, and you document which values are legal to use.

BTW, overuse of enums might mean that your methods do too much (it's often better to have several separate methods, rather than one method that takes several flags which modify what it does), but if you have to use flags or type codes, enums are the way to go.

As an example, which is better?

/** Counts number of foobangs.
 * @param type Type of foobangs to count. Can be 1=green foobangs,
 * 2=wrinkled foobangs, 3=sweet foobangs, 0=all types.
 * @return number of foobangs of type
public int countFoobangs(int type)


/** Types of foobangs. */
public enum FB_TYPE {
 /** special type for all types combined */

/** Counts number of foobangs.
 * @param type Type of foobangs to count
 * @return number of foobangs of type
public int countFoobangs(FB_TYPE type)

A method call like:

int sweetFoobangCount = countFoobangs(3);

then becomes:

int sweetFoobangCount = countFoobangs(FB_TYPE.SWEET);

In the second example, it's immediately clear which types are allowed, docs and implementation cannot go out of sync, and the compiler can enforce this. Also, an invalid call like

int sweetFoobangCount = countFoobangs(99);

is no longer possible.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

A mixin is a special kind of multiple inheritance. There are two main situations where mixins are used:

  1. You want to provide a lot of optional features for a class.
  2. You want to use one particular feature in a lot of different classes.

For an example of number one, consider werkzeug's request and response system. I can make a plain old request object by saying:

from werkzeug import BaseRequest

class Request(BaseRequest):

If I want to add accept header support, I would make that

from werkzeug import BaseRequest, AcceptMixin

class Request(AcceptMixin, BaseRequest):

If I wanted to make a request object that supports accept headers, etags, authentication, and user agent support, I could do this:

from werkzeug import BaseRequest, AcceptMixin, ETagRequestMixin, UserAgentMixin, AuthenticationMixin

class Request(AcceptMixin, ETagRequestMixin, UserAgentMixin, AuthenticationMixin, BaseRequest):

The difference is subtle, but in the above examples, the mixin classes weren't made to stand on their own. In more traditional multiple inheritance, the AuthenticationMixin (for example) would probably be something more like Authenticator. That is, the class would probably be designed to stand on its own.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
answered 7 Months ago

A good use case of $provide.decorator is when you need to do minor "tweak" on some third-party/upstream service, on which your module depends, while leaving the service intact (because you are not the owner/maintainer of the service). Here is a demonstration on plunkr.

Wednesday, June 9, 2021
answered 6 Months ago

Is there a problem with this formulation?

I don't see any.

Is there a better way?

I'd collapse the two statements into one:

const Colors = Object.freeze({
    RED:   Symbol("red"),
    BLUE:  Symbol("blue"),
    GREEN: Symbol("green")

If you don't like the boilerplate, like the repeated Symbol calls, you can of course also write a helper function makeEnum that creates the same thing from a list of names.

Tuesday, July 27, 2021
answered 5 Months ago

Yes, you can do the following:

    enum Colour{

        RED(1), BLUE(2);

        public int value;

        Colour(int valueArg){ 
            value = valueArg; 

        /*public setValue(int a){
            value = a;

        public getValue(){
            return value;


    public class Test{
        static Colour colour = Colour.BLUE;
        public static void main(String[] args){
            colour.value = 3;

You can do this with any variable type you'd like. Here, each instantiation of the Colour enum has an associated integer value. Optionally, make the value field private and create accessor and mutator methods (see the code comments). How this works is that you provide a value for the field via a constructor that you call when you make a new instantiation of the enum. You can add more fields and arguments to the constructor as you wish.

Monday, August 23, 2021
answered 4 Months ago
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