Asked  6 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   79 times

What is the difference between $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] and $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] in PHP?

When would you consider using one over the other and why?

 Answers

21

The HTTP_HOST is obtained from the HTTP request header and this is what the client actually used as "target host" of the request. The SERVER_NAME is defined in server config. Which one to use depends on what you need it for. You should now however realize that the one is a client-controlled value which may thus not be reliable for use in business logic and the other is a server-controlled value which is more reliable. You however need to ensure that the webserver in question has the SERVER_NAME correctly configured. Taking Apache HTTPD as an example, here's an extract from its documentation:

If no ServerName is specified, then the server attempts to deduce the hostname by performing a reverse lookup on the IP address. If no port is specified in the ServerName, then the server will use the port from the incoming request. For optimal reliability and predictability, you should specify an explicit hostname and port using the ServerName directive.


Update: after checking the answer of Pekka on your question which contains a link to bobince's answer that PHP would always return HTTP_HOST's value for SERVER_NAME, which goes against my own PHP 4.x + Apache HTTPD 1.2.x experiences from a couple of years ago, I blew some dust from my current XAMPP environment on Windows XP (Apache HTTPD 2.2.1 with PHP 5.2.8), started it, created a PHP page which prints the both values, created a Java test application using URLConnection to modify the Host header and tests taught me that this is indeed (incorrectly) the case.

After first suspecting PHP and digging in some PHP bug reports regarding the subject, I learned that the root of the problem is in web server used, that it incorrectly returned HTTP Host header when SERVER_NAME was requested. So I dug into Apache HTTPD bug reports using various keywords regarding the subject and I finally found a related bug. This behaviour was introduced since around Apache HTTPD 1.3. You need to set UseCanonicalName directive to on in the <VirtualHost> entry of the ServerName in httpd.conf (also check the warning at the bottom of the document!).

<VirtualHost *>
    ServerName example.com
    UseCanonicalName on
</VirtualHost> 

This worked for me.

Summarized, SERVER_NAME is more reliable, but you're dependent on the server config!

Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
Bere
answered 6 Months ago
76

It depends on how you plan to read the result set. But in the actual example you have given, you are not interested in reading any returned data. The only thing that interests you is whether there is a record or not.

In that case your code is fine, but it would work equally well with get_result.

The difference becomes more apparent, when you want to get for example the userid of the user with the given email:

SELECT id FROM users WHERE email = ?

If you plan to read out that id with $stmt->fetch, then you would stick to store_result, and would use bind_result to define in which variable you want to get this id, like this:

$stmt->store_result();    
$stmt->bind_result($userid);  // number of arguments must match columns in SELECT
if($stmt->num_rows > 0) {
    while ($stmt->fetch()) {
        echo $userid;  
    }
}

If you prefer to get a result object on which you can call fetch_assoc() or any of the fetch_* variant methods, then you need to use get_result, like this:

$result = $stmt->get_result();   // You get a result object now
if($result->num_rows > 0) {     // Note: change to $result->...!
    while ($data = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
        echo $data['id'];
    }
}

Note that you get a result object from get_result, which is not the case with store_result. You should get num_rows from that result object now.

Both ways work, and it is really a matter of personal preference.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
Magnanimity
answered 9 Months ago
16

The PHP Language reference has details on what a function and class is: http://www.php.net/manual/en/langref.php

It also explains most the other features of PHP. If want to learn PHP that is the best place to start.

Functions

The function is a grouping of statements (lines of code).

For example the following statements:

$name = 'mary';
$gender = 'girl';
if ($gender == 'girl') {
  $line = $name . ' had a little pony.';
} else if ($gender == 'boy') {
  $line = $name . ' had a little horse.';
}
echo $line;

Can be grouped together into a function so it can be reused:

getSentence('mary', 'girl');
getSentence('peter', 'boy');
function getSentence($name, $gender) {
  if ($gender == 'girl') {
    $line = $name . ' had a little pony.';
  } else if ($gender == 'boy') {
    $line = $name . ' had a little horse.';
  }
  echo $line;
}

Notice the two function calls:

getSentence('mary', 'girl');
getSentence('peter', 'boy');

These two statements run the whole block of code inside the getSentence function and pass it the variables $name and $gender. With the first function $name = 'mary' and $gender = 'girl' and in the second $name = 'peter' and $gender = 'boy'.

So the main benefit of functions is that you have grouped code for reuse, allowing the passing of different values for the variables needed by the function. These variables are called the function parameters.

Another benefit of having the code grouped is easier readability. You are essentially naming the block of code, and giving them a specific purpose. Making it easy to read and remember it's use.

Another benefit is that redundancy is removed. You do not have to write the block of code more then once. You just define it once, and call it multiple times. This also makes editing of the function code affect all calls to that function - which reduces errors in having to edit multiple locations when changing just one aspect.

eg:

We can make sure the $name string has an uppercase first character.

function getSentence($name, $gender) {
  $name = ucfirst($name);
  if ($gender == 'girl') {
    $line = $name . ' had a little pony.';
  } else if ($gender == 'boy') {
    $line = $name . ' had a little horse.';
  }
  echo $line;
}

We made just one change, and it affected every function call to getSentence(). In this case both:

getSentence('mary', 'girl'); 

and

getSentence('peter', 'boy'); 

Classes are a grouping of functions.

class Play {
  function getSentence($name, $gender) {
    $name = ucfirst($name);
    if ($gender == 'girl') {
      $line = $name . ' had a little pony.';
    } else if ($gender == 'boy') {
      $line = $name . ' had a little horse.';
    }
    echo $line;
  }
  function getSong($name) {
    // code here
  }
}

All we did was put

class Play { /** functions here **/ }

around a group of functions.

This offers the same benefits that functions do for statements except classes does it for functions.

Classes go further to build a programming methodology called Object Oriented programming (OOP), which you can read more about in link to PHP Language reference.

This defines classes as the template or definition of Objects. Objects being similar to real world objects, with the functions being called "methods" that can be called for the object.

So the class Play can be thought of as the object called "Play" with the methods "getSentence" and "getSong". These methods can then manipulate the properties of the object "Play" or return useful information about "Play". In this way, all the code inside Play becomes independent of code elsewhere in the program.

When the code inside Play requires some code elsewhere to function, it can be brought in using "inheritance", which is a major part of OOP. I will not go into detail about this as it is a very broad topic.

I would recommend getting a book on OOP and reading it to really understand why you should use classes and methods and when to use them.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
danjah
answered 9 Months ago
67

Apparently, when you access a VirtualHost through the alias, there is no trace of the original SERVER_NAME in any of the $_SERVER variables.

The only idea that comes to mind is setting an environment variable:

SetEnv MY_HOST host1.example.com

this should set the value of $_SERVER["MY_HOST"] to the correct host name. No guarantees though, I have never tried this in practice.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
hjalpmig
answered 9 Months ago
96

My best guess would be that a needed library is missing from your system. The php_ldap extensions requires that both libeay32.dll and ssleay32.dll is installed on the system:

From the ldap installation manual:

Note: Note to Win32 Users

In order for this extension to work, there are DLL files that must be available to the Windows system PATH. For information on how to do this, see the FAQ entitled "How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows". Although copying DLL files from the PHP folder into the Windows system directory also works (because the system directory is by default in the system's PATH), this is not recommended. This extension requires the following files to be in the PATH: libeay32.dll and ssleay32.dll Versions before PHP 4.3.0 additionally require libsasl.dll.

Saturday, May 29, 2021
 
osondoar
answered 7 Months ago
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