Asked  7 Months ago    Answers:  5   Viewed   314 times

I'm encrypting my user password in JavaScript like this:

 var encryptedPassword = CryptoJS.AES.encrypt(password, "Secret Passphrase");

It works fine but now I'm trying to decrypt in PHP on the server side like this:

 $iv = mcrypt_create_iv(mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC), MCRYPT_RAND);
 $decryptPassword = mcrypt_decrypt(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, "Secret Passphrase", base64_decode($password), MCRYPT_MODE_CBC, $iv);

it doesn't works at all, the decrypted password string looks very strange:

 string(64) ">?OX2MS???v?<$????i????_??P?????=?_6(?m????,4WT7??a"

Here is the current state of my code in JavaScript after the helpful comments:

    var encryptedPassword = CryptoJS.AES.encrypt(password, "Secret Passphrase");
    var ivHex = encryptedPassword.iv.toString();
    var ivSize = encryptedPassword.algorithm.ivSize; // same as blockSize
    var keySize = encryptedPassword.algorithm.keySize;
    var keyHex = encryptedPassword.key.toString();
    var saltHex = encryptedPassword.salt.toString(); // must be sent
    var openSslFormattedCipherTextString = encryptedPassword.toString(); // not used
    var cipherTextHex = encryptedPassword.ciphertext.toString(); // must be sent

I am sending saltHex and CipherTextHex to the PHP server and I'm using mcrypt_decrypt() like this:

 $iv = mcrypt_create_iv(mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC), $saltHex);
 $decryptPassword = mcrypt_decrypt(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, "Secret Passphrase", base64_decode($cipherTextHex), MCRYPT_MODE_CBC, $iv);

It still does't work with this updated code.

Can someone help me to decrypt properly with mcrypt_decrypt() PHP function for a simple AES encryption method ? I'm sure I am doing something wrong with the cipher, mcrypt mode and the IV parameters inside my mcrypt_decrypt() method. Thanks if you know.

 Answers

59

The problem is that in the CryptoJS code a password is used to derive the key and the IV to be used for AES encryption, but mcrypt only uses the key to encrypt/decrypt. This information needs to be passed to php. Since you don't want to transmit the password, you have to derive the key and IV in the same way in php.

The following code derives the key and IV from a password and salt. It is modeled after the code in my answer here (for more information).

function evpKDF($password, $salt, $keySize = 8, $ivSize = 4, $iterations = 1, $hashAlgorithm = "md5") {
    $targetKeySize = $keySize + $ivSize;
    $derivedBytes = "";
    $numberOfDerivedWords = 0;
    $block = NULL;
    $hasher = hash_init($hashAlgorithm);
    while ($numberOfDerivedWords < $targetKeySize) {
        if ($block != NULL) {
            hash_update($hasher, $block);
        }
        hash_update($hasher, $password);
        hash_update($hasher, $salt);
        $block = hash_final($hasher, TRUE);
        $hasher = hash_init($hashAlgorithm);

        // Iterations
        for ($i = 1; $i < $iterations; $i++) {
            hash_update($hasher, $block);
            $block = hash_final($hasher, TRUE);
            $hasher = hash_init($hashAlgorithm);
        }

        $derivedBytes .= substr($block, 0, min(strlen($block), ($targetKeySize - $numberOfDerivedWords) * 4));

        $numberOfDerivedWords += strlen($block)/4;
    }

    return array(
        "key" => substr($derivedBytes, 0, $keySize * 4),
        "iv"  => substr($derivedBytes, $keySize * 4, $ivSize * 4)
    );
}

The salt is generated during encryption in CryptoJS and needs to be sent to php with the ciphertext. Before invoking evpKDF the salt has to be converted to a binary string from hex.

$keyAndIV = evpKDF("Secret Passphrase", hex2bin($saltHex));
$decryptPassword = mcrypt_decrypt(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, 
        $keyAndIV["key"], 
        hex2bin($cipherTextHex), 
        MCRYPT_MODE_CBC, 
        $keyAndIV["iv"]);

If only encryptedPassword.toString() was sent to the server, then it is necessary to split the salt and actual ciphertext before use. The format is a proprietary OpenSSL-compatible format with the first 8 bytes being "Salted__", the next 8 bytes being the random salt and the rest is the actual ciphertext. Everything together is Base64-encoded.

function decrypt($ciphertext, $password) {
    $ciphertext = base64_decode($ciphertext);
    if (substr($ciphertext, 0, 8) != "Salted__") {
        return false;
    }
    $salt = substr($ciphertext, 8, 8);
    $keyAndIV = evpKDF($password, $salt);
    $decryptPassword = mcrypt_decrypt(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, 
            $keyAndIV["key"], 
            substr($ciphertext, 16), 
            MCRYPT_MODE_CBC, 
            $keyAndIV["iv"]);

    // unpad (PKCS#7)
    return substr($decryptPassword, 0, strlen($decryptPassword) - ord($decryptPassword[strlen($decryptPassword)-1]));
}

The same can be achieved with the OpenSSL extension instead of Mcrypt:

function decrypt($ciphertext, $password) {
    $ciphertext = base64_decode($ciphertext);
    if (substr($ciphertext, 0, 8) != "Salted__") {
        return false;
    }
    $salt = substr($ciphertext, 8, 8);
    $keyAndIV = evpKDF($password, $salt);
    $decryptPassword = openssl_decrypt(
            substr($ciphertext, 16), 
            "aes-256-cbc",
            $keyAndIV["key"], 
            OPENSSL_RAW_DATA, // base64 was already decoded
            $keyAndIV["iv"]);

    return $decryptPassword;
}
Tuesday, June 1, 2021
 
Sethunath
answered 7 Months ago
87

You're not doing the same thing on both sides.

IV

You did parse the IV in CryptoJS, but forgot to do it in PHP:

$iv_dec = pack('H*', "101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f");

To fix that your IV is wrong, you probably noticed that the first 16 bytes are gibberish. That happens when the IV is wrong. Note that CryptoJS uses CBC mode by default, so the IV has only influence on the first block during decryption. Remove this:

$ciphertext_dec = substr($ciphertext_dec, 16);

Padding

You probably noticed that most plaintexts don't come out right. They end with some strange repeated characters at the end. This is the PKCS#7 padding that is applied by default in CryptoJS. You have to remove the padding yourself in PHP. Good thing is that Maarten Bodewes has provided a proper copy paste solution for this here.

trim() might be appropriate for ZeroPadding, but not when a proper padding scheme like the one defined in PKCS#7 is used. You may remove the trim() call altogether, because it is not useful and may result in unexpected plaintext, becauses zero bytes and whitespace is trimmed from the beginning and end.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
anjan
answered 9 Months ago
12

Your SSL conversation between Java and PHP will protect it your data while it's in transit. Should you properly protect the private key with a strong password (10+ symbols) and make sure your algorithms strong no one will be able to break it by snooping on the conversation.

You won't get any extra protection by encrypting the data before sending it over the SSL conversation. And you actually might be weakening your security because in order for you to encrypt data you'll have to share some key should you choose symmetric encryption. And, by trading secret keys you're undoing much of the protection SSL gives you because the huge benefit of SSL is the fact we can encrypt data without agreeing on a secret key. If I were trying to get at your encrypted text I'd attack your client because it's easier to find your symmetric encryption key than it is to break SSL. And while you could use asymmetric encryption you'll be basically re-inventing SSL.

I would focus on making sure your SSL conversation is strong. Using only the strongest symmetric encryption: TripleDES, IDEA, AES if your server supports it. Take out the weaker algorithms so conversations can't use the weaker encryption. Generate 1024+ public/private key pairs. That might not always be easy on your shared server, but your Java application could only choose to use TripleDES, IDEA, and AES.

Make sure you validate the server's certificate on the client side so you ensure you aren't talking to a false service. That basically means taking the server's certificate and adding it to the keystore used on the client. If that's Java you can use keytool to import a certificate and use that keystore as your TrustManager/KeyManager in your SSL conversation.

If you want to encrypt the data after it's gone over the SSL conversation then you can encrypt/decrypt on the server only. But, you still have a key management problem. If you encrypt/decrypt how do you plan on securing the secret key on the server? That's always the ugly problem that doesn't have a simple answer.

Wednesday, March 31, 2021
 
hohner
answered 9 Months ago
50

Your code WILL work if you just fix a few typos there

JS

    <script src="http://crypto-js.googlecode.com/svn/tags/3.1.2/build/rollups/aes.js"></script>
    <script src="http://crypto-js.googlecode.com/svn/tags/3.1.2/build/rollups/pbkdf2.js"></script>
    <script>
        var salt = CryptoJS.lib.WordArray.random(128/8); 
        var key256Bits500Iterations = CryptoJS.PBKDF2("Secret Passphrase", salt, { keySize: 256/32, iterations: 500 });
        var iv  = CryptoJS.enc.Hex.parse('101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f'); // just chosen for an example, usually random as well

        var encrypted = CryptoJS.AES.encrypt("Message", key256Bits500Iterations, { iv: iv });  
        var data_base64 = encrypted.ciphertext.toString(CryptoJS.enc.Base64); 
        var iv_base64   = encrypted.iv.toString(CryptoJS.enc.Base64);       
        var key_base64  = encrypted.key.toString(CryptoJS.enc.Base64);
    </script>

PHP

    <?php
        $encrypted = base64_decode("data_base64"); // data_base64 from JS
        $iv        = base64_decode("iv_base64");   // iv_base64 from JS
        $key       = base64_decode("key_base64");  // key_base64 from JS

        $plaintext = rtrim( mcrypt_decrypt( MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, $key, $encrypted, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC, $iv ), "t " );
Wednesday, August 11, 2021
 
Xatoo
answered 4 Months ago
88

Found the answer here:

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms148409.aspx

Great example:

using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;
using System.IO;
using System.Text;

// To run this sample use the Certificate Creation Tool (Makecert.exe) to generate a test X.509 certificate and 
// place it in the local user store. 
// To generate an exchange key and make the key exportable run the following command from a Visual Studio command prompt: 

//makecert -r -pe -n "CN=CERT_SIGN_TEST_CERT" -b 01/01/2010 -e 01/01/2012 -sky exchange -ss my
namespace X509CertEncrypt
{
    class Program
    {

        // Path variables for source, encryption, and
        // decryption folders. Must end with a backslash.
        private static string encrFolder = @"C:Encrypt";
        private static string decrFolder = @"C:Decrypt";
        private static string originalFile = "TestData.txt";
        private static string encryptedFile = "TestData.enc";

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {

            // Create an input file with test data.
            StreamWriter sw = File.CreateText(originalFile);
            sw.WriteLine("Test data to be encrypted");
            sw.Close();

            // Get the certifcate to use to encrypt the key.
            X509Certificate2 cert = GetCertificateFromStore("CN=CERT_SIGN_TEST_CERT");
            if (cert == null)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Certificatge 'CN=CERT_SIGN_TEST_CERT' not found.");
                Console.ReadLine();
            }


            // Encrypt the file using the public key from the certificate.
            EncryptFile(originalFile, (RSACryptoServiceProvider)cert.PublicKey.Key);

            // Decrypt the file using the private key from the certificate.
            DecryptFile(encryptedFile, (RSACryptoServiceProvider)cert.PrivateKey);

            //Display the original data and the decrypted data.
            Console.WriteLine("Original:   {0}", File.ReadAllText(originalFile));
            Console.WriteLine("Round Trip: {0}", File.ReadAllText(decrFolder + originalFile));
            Console.WriteLine("Press the Enter key to exit.");
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
        private static X509Certificate2 GetCertificateFromStore(string certName)
        {

            // Get the certificate store for the current user.
            X509Store store = new X509Store(StoreLocation.CurrentUser);
            try
            {
                store.Open(OpenFlags.ReadOnly);

                // Place all certificates in an X509Certificate2Collection object.
                X509Certificate2Collection certCollection = store.Certificates;
                // If using a certificate with a trusted root you do not need to FindByTimeValid, instead:
                // currentCerts.Find(X509FindType.FindBySubjectDistinguishedName, certName, true);
                X509Certificate2Collection currentCerts = certCollection.Find(X509FindType.FindByTimeValid, DateTime.Now, false);
                X509Certificate2Collection signingCert = currentCerts.Find(X509FindType.FindBySubjectDistinguishedName, certName, false);
                if (signingCert.Count == 0)
                    return null;
                // Return the first certificate in the collection, has the right name and is current.
                return signingCert[0];
            }
            finally
            {
                store.Close();
            }

        }

        // Encrypt a file using a public key.
        private static void EncryptFile(string inFile, RSACryptoServiceProvider rsaPublicKey)
        {
            using (AesManaged aesManaged = new AesManaged())
            {
                // Create instance of AesManaged for
                // symetric encryption of the data.
                aesManaged.KeySize = 256;
                aesManaged.BlockSize = 128;
                aesManaged.Mode = CipherMode.CBC;
                using (ICryptoTransform transform = aesManaged.CreateEncryptor())
                {
                    RSAPKCS1KeyExchangeFormatter keyFormatter = new RSAPKCS1KeyExchangeFormatter(rsaPublicKey);
                    byte[] keyEncrypted = keyFormatter.CreateKeyExchange(aesManaged.Key, aesManaged.GetType());

                    // Create byte arrays to contain
                    // the length values of the key and IV.
                    byte[] LenK = new byte[4];
                    byte[] LenIV = new byte[4];

                    int lKey = keyEncrypted.Length;
                    LenK = BitConverter.GetBytes(lKey);
                    int lIV = aesManaged.IV.Length;
                    LenIV = BitConverter.GetBytes(lIV);

                    // Write the following to the FileStream
                    // for the encrypted file (outFs):
                    // - length of the key
                    // - length of the IV
                    // - ecrypted key
                    // - the IV
                    // - the encrypted cipher content

                    int startFileName = inFile.LastIndexOf("\") + 1;
                    // Change the file's extension to ".enc"
                    string outFile = encrFolder + inFile.Substring(startFileName, inFile.LastIndexOf(".") - startFileName) + ".enc";
                    Directory.CreateDirectory(encrFolder);

                    using (FileStream outFs = new FileStream(outFile, FileMode.Create))
                    {

                        outFs.Write(LenK, 0, 4);
                        outFs.Write(LenIV, 0, 4);
                        outFs.Write(keyEncrypted, 0, lKey);
                        outFs.Write(aesManaged.IV, 0, lIV);

                        // Now write the cipher text using
                        // a CryptoStream for encrypting.
                        using (CryptoStream outStreamEncrypted = new CryptoStream(outFs, transform, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
                        {

                            // By encrypting a chunk at
                            // a time, you can save memory
                            // and accommodate large files.
                            int count = 0;
                            int offset = 0;

                            // blockSizeBytes can be any arbitrary size.
                            int blockSizeBytes = aesManaged.BlockSize / 8;
                            byte[] data = new byte[blockSizeBytes];
                            int bytesRead = 0;

                            using (FileStream inFs = new FileStream(inFile, FileMode.Open))
                            {
                                do
                                {
                                    count = inFs.Read(data, 0, blockSizeBytes);
                                    offset += count;
                                    outStreamEncrypted.Write(data, 0, count);
                                    bytesRead += blockSizeBytes;
                                }
                                while (count > 0);
                                inFs.Close();
                            }
                            outStreamEncrypted.FlushFinalBlock();
                            outStreamEncrypted.Close();
                        }
                        outFs.Close();
                    }
                }
            }
        }


        // Decrypt a file using a private key.
        private static void DecryptFile(string inFile, RSACryptoServiceProvider rsaPrivateKey)
        {

            // Create instance of AesManaged for
            // symetric decryption of the data.
            using (AesManaged aesManaged = new AesManaged())
            {
                aesManaged.KeySize = 256;
                aesManaged.BlockSize = 128;
                aesManaged.Mode = CipherMode.CBC;

                // Create byte arrays to get the length of
                // the encrypted key and IV.
                // These values were stored as 4 bytes each
                // at the beginning of the encrypted package.
                byte[] LenK = new byte[4];
                byte[] LenIV = new byte[4];

                // Consruct the file name for the decrypted file.
                string outFile = decrFolder + inFile.Substring(0, inFile.LastIndexOf(".")) + ".txt";

                // Use FileStream objects to read the encrypted
                // file (inFs) and save the decrypted file (outFs).
                using (FileStream inFs = new FileStream(encrFolder + inFile, FileMode.Open))
                {

                    inFs.Seek(0, SeekOrigin.Begin);
                    inFs.Seek(0, SeekOrigin.Begin);
                    inFs.Read(LenK, 0, 3);
                    inFs.Seek(4, SeekOrigin.Begin);
                    inFs.Read(LenIV, 0, 3);

                    // Convert the lengths to integer values.
                    int lenK = BitConverter.ToInt32(LenK, 0);
                    int lenIV = BitConverter.ToInt32(LenIV, 0);

                    // Determine the start postition of
                    // the ciphter text (startC)
                    // and its length(lenC).
                    int startC = lenK + lenIV + 8;
                    int lenC = (int)inFs.Length - startC;

                    // Create the byte arrays for
                    // the encrypted AesManaged key,
                    // the IV, and the cipher text.
                    byte[] KeyEncrypted = new byte[lenK];
                    byte[] IV = new byte[lenIV];

                    // Extract the key and IV
                    // starting from index 8
                    // after the length values.
                    inFs.Seek(8, SeekOrigin.Begin);
                    inFs.Read(KeyEncrypted, 0, lenK);
                    inFs.Seek(8 + lenK, SeekOrigin.Begin);
                    inFs.Read(IV, 0, lenIV);
                    Directory.CreateDirectory(decrFolder);
                    // Use RSACryptoServiceProvider
                    // to decrypt the AesManaged key.
                    byte[] KeyDecrypted = rsaPrivateKey.Decrypt(KeyEncrypted, false);

                    // Decrypt the key.
                    using (ICryptoTransform transform = aesManaged.CreateDecryptor(KeyDecrypted, IV))
                    {

                        // Decrypt the cipher text from
                        // from the FileSteam of the encrypted
                        // file (inFs) into the FileStream
                        // for the decrypted file (outFs).
                        using (FileStream outFs = new FileStream(outFile, FileMode.Create))
                        {

                            int count = 0;
                            int offset = 0;

                            int blockSizeBytes = aesManaged.BlockSize / 8;
                            byte[] data = new byte[blockSizeBytes];

                            // By decrypting a chunk a time,
                            // you can save memory and
                            // accommodate large files.

                            // Start at the beginning
                            // of the cipher text.
                            inFs.Seek(startC, SeekOrigin.Begin);
                            using (CryptoStream outStreamDecrypted = new CryptoStream(outFs, transform, CryptoStreamMode.Write))
                            {
                                do
                                {
                                    count = inFs.Read(data, 0, blockSizeBytes);
                                    offset += count;
                                    outStreamDecrypted.Write(data, 0, count);

                                }
                                while (count > 0);

                                outStreamDecrypted.FlushFinalBlock();
                                outStreamDecrypted.Close();
                            }
                            outFs.Close();
                        }
                        inFs.Close();
                    }

                }

            }
        }

    }
}
Saturday, August 14, 2021
 
jsmith
answered 4 Months ago
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